Mr Munaonyedi John

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
A database is a persistent, logically coherent collection of inherently meaningful data, relevant to some aspects of the real world e.g. hospital. According to Robert (1995), relevant information in any organization needs to be stored in a database in order to ease record search. The Project is based on the patient information management where patient fingerprint can be taken and be stored into a database. Being the Information System, it requires extensive use of some Data base Management System(DBMS) to store, manipulate and handle the huge and complex record, In DBMS we can act various attributes with the database like editing the records, Modifications Deletions of the records, View the records in various formats etc. 2.2 Concept and History of Hospital

During the middle Ages hospitals served different functions to modern institutions, being almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims’ etc. The word hospital comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, which is the relation between guests and sheltered, hospitality, friendliness, hospitable reception. Grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. In the U.S., hospital usually requires an article; in Britain and elsewhere, the word normally is used without an article when it is the object of a preposition and when referring to a patient. The earliest documented institutions aiming to provide cures were ancient Egyptian temples. In ancient Greece, temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia, functioned as centers of medical advice, prognosis, and healing(Risse, et al,2000). At these shrines, patients would enter a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" in Greek language not

unlike anesthesia, in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery(Roderick,2005). Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing(Risse, et al,2000). In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium (Roderick,2005). The worship of Asclepius was adopted by the Romans. Under his Roman name Esculapius, he was provided with a temple (291 BC) on an island in the Tiber in Rome, where similar rites were performed (Roderick,2005). Institutions created specifically to care for the ill also appeared early in India. Fa Xian, a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled across India, recorded in his travelogue (Roderick,2005) that "The heads of the Vaisya (merchant) families in them is establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicine. All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go away of themselves." The earliest surviving encyclopedia of medicine in Sanskrit is the Carakasamhita (Compendium of Caraka). This text, which describes the building of a hospital is dated by Dominik Wujastyk of the University College London from the period between 100 BCE and CE150 (Wujastyk,2001).According to Dr.Wujastyk, the description by Fa Xian is one of the earliest accounts of a civic hospital system anywhere in the world and,...
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