Mr. Chetan Aggarwal

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Activity 1 - Hematocrit Determination
1. List the hematocrits for the healthy make (sample 1) and female (sample 2) living in Boston (at sea level) and indicate whether they are normal or whether they indicate anemia or polycythemia. Healthy Male (Sample 1) = 48 and Healthy Female = 44. Both are normal as the average hematocrit for males is 42-52%, and the average for females is 37-47% 2. Describe the difference between the hematocrits for the male and female living in Boston. Why does this difference between the sexes exist? Men have a higher hematocrit due to 1.) being larger in size than women and having more muscle mass, and 2.) It has been shown that testosterone affects the secretion of erythropoietin (EPO) by the kidneys. EPO is responsible for the formation of red blood cells. Higher testosterone in males means more red blood cell formation and hence a higher hematocrit.  3. List the hematocrits for the healthy male and female living in Denver (approximately one mile above sea level) and indicate whether they are normal or whether they indicate anemia or polycythemia. Male=55, Female=53 ; Both are elevated indicating polycythemia 4. How did the hematocrit levels of the Denver residents differ from those of Boston residents? Why? How well did the results compare with your prediction? Denver residents live at a higher elevation than do Bostonians and will therefore experience compensation mechanisms due to the increase levels of hypoxia. 5. Describe how the kidneys respond to a chronic decrease in oxygen and what effect this has on hematocrit levels. When the kidneys detect the body in a hypoxic state (chronic decrease in O2) they will release erythropoietin (EPO) to stimulate RBC production.  This will lead to an overall increase in hematocrit levels. 6. List the hematocrit for the male with aplastic (sample 5) and indicate whether it is normal or abnormal. Explain your response. Male hematocrit=19 and is abnormally low. Aplastic anemia is where the bone marrow is not producing enough RBC's. 7. List the hematocrit for the female with iron-deficiency anemia (sample 6) and indicate whether it is normal or abnormal. Explain your response. Female hematocrit= 32 and is abnormal due to a decrease in oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin.

4. What effect does iron-deficiency anemia (sample 4) have on the sedimentation rate?

THE SEDIMENTATION RATE IS ELEVATED IN IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA. PROBABLY BECAUSE IT LACKS THE IRON/PROTEINS THAT A REGULAR RBC WOULD CARRY, AND SINCE THE AMOUNT IS LESS IT MAKES THEM LIGHTER AND SETTLE SLOWER.

2. Which blood sample contained the rarest bloody type?

Sample 3 contains the rarest blood type, AB negative. If you have this blood type the blood banks have you on speed dial. Quote
4. Which blood sample contained the universal recipient?

Sample 5 contains the universal recipient, AB positive. It is the universal recipient because all of the antigens are present on the surface of the RBCs.

8. Samples 5 which is AB+ and sample 2 which is B+.
Post Merge: Oct  2, 2012
6. Anti-B would be found in sample 1.

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Activity two # 3) How did the sedimentation rate for the individual with angina pectoris (sample 6) compare with the sedimentation rate for the healthy individual (sample 1) Why?  How well did the results compare with your prediction?

The sedimentation rate was the same. The sedimentation rate was not elevated because the individual hasn’t had a myocardial infarction.

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Activity Four #6) What antibodies would be found in the plasma of blood sample 1?

Antibodies against the B antigens because the blood type for sample #1 is A+.\

Exercise 29B: Blood Analysis - Computer Simulation
1. Activity 1: Hematocrit Determination
HEMATOCRIT VALUE FOR HEALTHY MALE LIVING AT SEA LEVEL IN BOSTON. HEMATOCRIT VALUE FOR HEALTHY FEMALE LIVING AT SEA LEVEL IN BOSTON. MALE= 48
FEMALE= 44
BOTH ARE WITHIN NORMAL RANGE.
2. Activity 1: Hematocrit...
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