John L. Crompton Department of Recreation & Parks Texas A&M University, USA
Crompton, John L., "Motivations for Pleasure Vacations," Annals of Tourism Research, October/December 1979, VI(4):408-424. The study is concerned with identifying those motives of pleasure vacationers which influence the selection of a destination. It also seeks to develop a conceptual framework capable of encompassing such motives. Empirically nine motives were identified. Seven were classified as socio-psychological, namely: escape from a perceived mundane environment, exploration and evaluation of self, relaxation, prestige, regression, enhancement of kinship relationships, and facilitation of social interaction. The two remaining motives, novelty and education, formed the alternate cultural category. The latter were noted to be at least partially aroused by the particular qualities that a destination offered. By contrast sociopsychological motives were found to be unrelated to destination attributes. Here the emphasis shifted from the destination itself to its function as a medium through which socio-psychological needs could be satisfied. The research data suggest that the tourist industry may usefully pay greater attention to socio-psychological motives in developing product and promotion strategies. Keywords: motives, pleasure vacations, sociopsychological, cultural. John L. Crompton is an Assistant Professor in the (Department of Recreation and Parks at Texas A&M University. His research interests are primarily in the area of consumer behavior and marketing as they apply to tourism development and to non-profit leisure organizations. 408 ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH Oct/Dec '79
JOHN L. CROMPTON
RESUME Crompton, John L. "La Motivation pour les voyages d ' a g r 6 m e n t , " Annals of Tourism Research, october/decembre 1979, VI(4):408-424. Ce travail s'engage h isoler les motivations des vacanciers qui influencent le choix d°une destination. II cherche aussi h d6veiopper un cadre conceptuel qui puisse inclure de telles motivations. On a d6fini empiriquement neuf sortes de motivations. On en a class6 sept comme sociopsychologiques, h savoir: 6vasion d'un environnement que l'on consid~re comme banal, exploration et 6valuation de sol, repos, prestige, r6gression, am61ioration des rapports familiaux, et possibilit6 d'interaction sociale. Les deux autres sortes de motivation, nouveaut6 et 6ducation, forment la cat6gorie culturelle. On a remarqu6 que ces deux derni~res motivations sont 6veill6es au moins en partie par les agr6ments particuliers qu'offre une destination donn6e. On a trouv6 par contre que ies motivations socio-psychologiques n'ont aucun rapport aux agr6ments d ' u n e destination. Ici i'accent n'est past sur la destination en sol, mais plutbt sur sa fonction de moyen par iequel on peut pourvoir h ses besoins socio-psychologiques. Les donn6es sugg~rent que l'industrie touristique ferait bien d'accorder plus d'importance aux motivations socio-psychoIogiques Iorsqu'elle d6veloppe des strat6gies de promotion et de produit. Mots clef: motivation, voyages d'agr6ment, socio-psychologique, culturel INTRODUCTION The travel market is often divided into four segments: personal business travel, government or corporate business travel, visiting friends and relatives, and pleasure vacation travel (Nesbit 1973). This study focuses on the pleasure vacation travel segment. The objectives of the research were to identify motives which directed respondents' selection of destination, and to develop a conceptual framework that would integrate such motives. It was anticipated that the motives might provide a basis for sub-dividing or segmenting those traveling for pleasure. The concept of a stable equilibrium state is either stated or implied in most theories of motivation (McNeal 1973). Disequilibrium or tension in the motivational system occurs when some need arises. Disturbance of equilibrium drives the...