S.C. SIVASUNDARAM ANUSHAN, M.B.A, M.Phil.,
Department of Management Studies,
In this day and age, any company that wants to get ahead needs to have motivated workers. Traditional incentive programs have been based upon extrinsic motivators such as salary and benefits. Intrinsic motivation, however, is needed in order to arouse a persons passion or commitment to the job. Shared vision, leadership, teamwork, training, increased capability, and goal accomplishment are powerful motivators which can be encouraged, embedded, or "designed in" to create a high performance culture. A 1993 public relations brochure on the Opel production system makes a surprising statement: "Employee motivation represents one of our largest productivity reserves and is therefore a key element for increasing the international competitiveness of German automobile manufacturers" "Continuous improvement at Open Essence is part of the team concept. People on the job understand their immediate work environment and are expected to optimise the process, to change details of the assembly, or to develop new procedures . There are two more lessons to consider. One is the surprising level of work motivation created by giving people full control over their jobs and letting them organize their workplace to reach the highest possible degree of overall efficiency. This changes the role of management to becoming a resource of advice and support, based on close partnership and open communications. The other is the impo! rtance of learning, or continuous skill acquisition. Learning with the team and across the team structure at Opel Eisenach provides the people with a good understanding of the conceptual framework of the facility and everyones role within it. Examples: Motivational Practices
1.Mars, Inc.: Every employee, including the president, gets a weekly 10% bonus by coming to work on time each day that week. 2.Japanese Companies: Employees meet regularly to hear inspirational speeches, sing company songs, & chant the corporate litany. 3.Tupperware & Mary Kay Cosmetics: Hold inspirational get-togethers for sales force organizations. 4.Procter & Gamble: Encourages competition among brand managers; system breeds people who love to compete and excel Contemporary issues in motivation:
Understanding and predicting employee motivation continues to be one of the most popular areas in management research. Several significant workplace issues are important to look at in understanding motivation. A.To maximize motivation among today's diversified work force, managers need to think in terms of being flexible. Many of the so-called family-friendly programmes and flexible working schedules that organizations have developed are a response to the varied needs of a diverse workforce. 1.A compressed workweek is a workweek comprised of four 10-hour days. 2.Flexible work hours (also known as flextime) describes a scheduling system in which employees are required to work a number of hours a week, but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work. 3.Job sharing is the practice of having two or more people split a forty-hour-a-week job. 4.Telecommuting allows employees to do their work at home through the linking by computer and modem of the employee and the office. 5.Cultural differences also play a role in motivating a diverse workforce. Managers need to be aware of cultural differences in developing appropriate motivation programmes. B.Pay-for-performance programs are compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure. C.Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) is a compensation program in which employees become part owners of the organization by receiving stock as a performance incentive. D.Motivating minimum-wage employees is one of the toughest...