Motivational Plan Essay
Douglas C. Soles
Grand Canyon University: EDA 575
January 12, 2011
There are five basic theories of motivation. 1) Self-determination theory states that people have three basic needs. 2) Attribution theory wants to know why things happen. 3) Expectancy-value theory is interested in a person’s beliefs about abilities. 4) Social cognitive theory states that human behavior comes from their attributes. 5) Goal orientation theory wants to know the reasons for doing tasks. Self-Determination Theory
The self-determination theory states that people have three basic needs. A need for autonomy, which is to feel a sense of self-directedness, the need to feel competent, and the need to be related to something. People are motivated with the things that will help meet these needs. People are motivated when their actions are self-determined. “The more self-determined the motivation is, the more the person experience positive outcomes, including persisting in the activity” (Lavigne, Vallerand & Miquelon, 2007). People perceive they have choices available to them. This theory gives another reason for negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is when a student really wants to learn something. Students will be motivated if they feel they relate to what is going on. They also will be motivated if they feel competent. If a student feels they are smart and can do a task successfully, they will be more motivated to get it done. If an individual has the three basic needs they will have self-determination. Attribution Theory
Attribution theory wants to know why things happen. It might lead to negative feelings. It could cause someone to give up or try harder depending on the feeling. “Attribution (explanatory) thinking involves an appraisal of factors contributing to success and failure outcomes and is regarded as instrumental to motivation and goal striving in achievement settings” (Perry, Stupnisky, Daniels & Haynes, 2008). Stability is if the event is constant across time and situations. A cause that is stable is failing a test because they are not smart. Intelligence is unchangeable so it is a stable attribution. A cause that is unstable is not doing well because the student was sick when they took a test. Locus is the cause is either internal of external. Locus that is internal is thinking you do not have the ability or skills to do well. Locus that is external is outside factors. These could be the teacher grades hard, the classroom environment like too noisy or interruptions, or anything that is outside the students’ ability. Control is the belief that a person can control events. If a student makes a bad grade on something, they can make two attributions for this grade. They could possible feel they just are not capable of doing the work or understanding the work. They could also feel they did not put forth a lot of effort and therefore could have controlled the grade. If it is a controllability issue, then the student is likely to try and fix it. Teachers can help students with the attribution theory by helping with stability. They can encourage a student that they are intelligent and capable of doing the work assigned. They can also encourage a student which will help with internal locus. Expectancy-value theory
Expectancy-value theory is interested in a person’s belief about abilities and their value of a task. Motivation is determined by one’s expectancies for success and one’s value of the task. How a teacher teaches can influence a student’s beliefs and values. There are four components to this theory. “Correspond to the students’ beliefs about how well they will perform on upcoming tasks and relate to their perception of being able to carry out their academic projects successfully” (Chouinard & Roy, 2008). An example is a student who thinks they are logical will value problem...