Motivation Theory

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 157
  • Published : February 29, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
Research Essay (Essay Plan)

1. Outline classical theories of motivation and illustrate their application in different business situation. Discuss their usefulness to the 21st century business manager.

Part 1: Introduction
* (Why) are theories of motivation still relevant to the 21st century business manager? In today’s market, organizations always put pressure on enhanced communication, globalization and improved technology to find variety of ways of winning business. (Dransfield, 1996: 297) This has made it necessary for organizations to significantly rely on the intelligence of their workforces. - (Why) are they important/useful? What does the 21st century business management need? * What is motivation? What are classical theories of motivation?

Part 2: 3 types of Motivation theory
Approaches to motivation are underpinned by motivation. We can simply classify the most influential theories into three types as instrumentality theory, content theory and process theory. The first on is Instrumentality theory. Rewards and punishments serve as the means of ensuring that people behave or act in desired ways. This is emerged in the second half of the 19th century with its emphasis on the need to rationalize work and on economic outcomes, such as Scientific management by F W Taylor and Skinner’s concept of conditioning (1974) The second on is Content theory, which focuses on the content of motivation. It states that motivation is essentially about taking action to satisfy needs, and identifies the main needs that influence behavior. Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow and Two-factor model by Herzberg are two examples representing this type. The last one is process theory. It focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation. By reference to expectation theory (Vroom, 1964), goals (Latham and Locke, 1979) and perceptions of equity (Adams, 1965) * How can the classical theories of motivation help the present nowadays?

Part 4: Maslow’s needs hierarchy
Maslow’s needs hierarchy, put forward by Abraham Maslow in 1954, states that people are motivated by their current needs and that these needs are structured hierarchically. We have to satisfy the needs at the bottom of the hierarchy before we can move up to satisfy ‘higher needs’. Maslow just grouped the needs into five categories, i.e. physiological, safety/security, social and self-fulfillment. - Physiological needs: The needs we have at the most basic level. At work, this level would refer to basic working conditions: a decent canteen, toilets, washing facilities. - Safety/ Security: At work this would mean job security, salary, pension - Social: Being part of a work group or team

- Self-esteem: This might mean praise from the boss of recognition of a job well done - Self-fulfillment: This would mean needing a stretching and challenging job. - Needs may very from culture to culture. For example, Japan social needs and self-esteem needs are likely to be more important whereas in the USA self-fulfillment needs are more likely to dominate. <People, Psychology and Business> Lita de Alberdi - How does this generally use in the daily life?

- Daily examples with different business industry
IN-TEXT: (de Alberdi, 1997)
ENT OF TEXT: de Alberdi, L. (1997)

Part 5:
- Two-factor model by Herzberg
- How does this generally use in the daily life?
- Daily examples with different business industry

Part 6:
- What does the 21st century business management need? - How can we apply the classical theories of motivation to the daily uses

Maslow’s needs hierarchy
- Put forward by Abraham Maslow (1954)
- People are motivated by their current needs and that these needs are structured hierarchically; that is, we have to satisfy the needs at the bottom of the hierarchy before we can move up to satisfy ‘higher needs’. - Maslow grouped needs into five categories.

- Physiological, Safety/Security,...
tracking img