Motivation Theories Within Organization.

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Nowadays it is widely accepted that the most important resource of any company are its employees; therefore competent manager need to have the clear understanding what motivates their subordinates to achieve effective performance as from efficiency of their work the success of the organization depends. Consequently, the task of manager consists in as much as possible effectively to use personnel opportunities. In independence on the manager decision the effect from it can be received only in case if this decision would successfully be embodied in the employees’ affairs. And it can occur only in case if workers are interested in results of the work. For this reason, it is necessary to motivate the person, to induce to action. “Motivation is a combination of needs that influence behavior and action” (Kressler, 2003). In case if an employee is to successfully complete a task in any organization, he or she requires motivation, performance capacity and development potential in order to activate skills, experiences, talents and creative energies, and reach company goals. The main purpose of this assignment is the consideration and analysis of motivation theories (content & process theories), on which based the modern management within organization, for effective human resource management. Thus it is necessary to examine these theories in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in understanding what and how to motivate employee for organization. In order to gain the basic knowledge about the theories of motivation the Maslow’s theory of need will be considered and analyzed in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in organization. In his well-known theory Abraham Maslow proposed that individuals have a basic set of needs and that this needs are arranged as hierarchy of needs. (Maslow, Abraham H., 1987) Maslow (1987) also claimed that individual behavior depends on which need among the hierarchy of needs is dominate at present moment. At the same time, each individual has requirements of all five needs, whereas the force of each requirement, during any concrete time, depends on personal priorities of the individual. Thus, depending on these priorities the hierarchy of needs is built. Indeed, manager who informed about the level of needs of his subordinates will able to predict which type of needs will be dominated in their behavior; hence the most effective motivator can be chosen. Generally, the theory proposes the five stages of needs according to Maslow (1987). In order to have the clear understanding of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs the basic stages of the theory will be considered briefly below. At the bottom of the hierarchy is psychological need which based on physical drives including basic and primary needs of the individual. Regarding the organization it is needs for a salary, holiday, provision of pensions, the breaks, favorable operating conditions, illumination, heating and ventilation. After satisfying basic physiological needs the safety became individual’s main concern. This need reflect desire to maintain awards and position already received and also to protect themselves from danger, harm, threats, traumas, losses or deprivations. Within the organizations this need have the form of employees struggle for safety work, introduction of the seniority system and the organization of trade unions, safe working conditions, side benefits, the insurance and the severance pay (Kreitner, 2007). Since the biological and safety needs are reached the attention of individual focus on his need for friendship, love and his accessory. The individual as “social being” feel desire to be attractive for others and want to satisfy their social needs in the organization. It occurs by way of entering in formal and informal work groups and by collaboration with other individuals (Kreitner, 2007). Maslow (1987) claimed that once people begin to satisfy their affiliation needs, they...
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