Motivation Theories

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The contemporary motivation approaches includes goal-setting theory, job design theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory. Goal-setting theory says that specific goals increase performance and difficult goals, when accepted; result in higher performance than do easy goals. This theory states that working toward a goal is a major source of job motivation. It also states that in some cases, participatively set goals licit superior performance while in other cases, individuals performed best when their manager assigned goals. Besides, this theory states that people will do better if they get feedback on how they’re progressing toward their goals and self-generated feedback guides and motivates their behavior. Three other contingencies besides feedback influence the goal-performance relationship: goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, and national culture. Job design influence motivation states that managers should design jobs deliberately and thoughtfully to reflect the demands of the changing environment, the organization’s technology, and employees skills, abilities, and preferences. When jobs are designed like that, employees are motivated to work hard. This model says there are five core job dimensions that are used to design motivating jobs: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Equity theory proposes that employees compare what they get from a job (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratio of relevant others. When employees perceive their ratio to be inequitable, they attempt to do something about it. Expectancy theory sates that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It includes three variables: effort-performance linkage, instrumentality or performance-reward linkage, and valence or...
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