Motivation Theories

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1) Motivation is the internal and external factors that stimulate effective work and empower employees to be interested in their work. (http://www.businessdictionary.com) There are 5 main motivation theorists: F W Taylor, A Maslow, E Mayo, F Hertzberg, and D McGregor. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s theory of Scientific Management states that employees are motivated by wages.(www.tutor2u.net) Taylor saw money as a main motivation of work. He thought that employer should pay to employee that amount of money should be linked to the amount that employee has produced. Taylor’s idea is simple- let employees work and managers to manage bаsed оn scientific principles of work. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs consists of 2 parts: Classification of human needs and Relationship between classes.( Hall et al(2008), p130) Each class of need could be placed into hierarchy, in other words pyramid with each level that consists of certain class of needs. The main principle of Maslow’s hierarchy is that person starts from the bottom of the pyramid- Psychological needs. At this stage person’s motivation is to satisfy general needs, such as food, clothing etc. When this stage is satisfied, this is no longer a motivation. Then person goes up to the next stage- safety needs. Safety need includes psychological safety such as being protected from unemployment. The following stage is social needs that recognize person’s want to be belonged to a group of people e.g. team working, support from a group, communication etc. Esteem needs required want such as recognition for a job well done. And the last stage is Self-actualisation, this need is about that person need more responsibility and wants to be promoted. Elton Mayo was invited to join the research at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company in 1927. (www,tutor2u.net) Because of the name of the factory, usually people call this theory Hawthorne. The main idea of the research was experiment, where Mayo observed people’s reaction...
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