14 December 2011
By Dmitry Danilov
Motivation in Small Businesses
In every business undertaking, motivation is most essential subject that keeps running the business all the way from its establishment to the accomplishment of the set goals and objectives. Businesses whether small or big have to come up with or develop various strategies to make the business activities run in a smooth mannerism. Motivations within small businesses can prove to be additionally complex than for a bigger business since certain individual or families possess the establishments. The motivations within a business can also come from the inner self or the individual drive, towards starting a certain business enterprise or being forced by certain individuals, into starting a business enterprise. In order for achieve motivation in a small business enterprise, an individual or groups of individual ought to come up with the excellent strategic planning. The strategic planning can be considered to intermarry or rather the two that is strategic planning with motivation have intricate connections. The two, strategic planning together with motivation have the complexity in that, the small enterprises act as extensions for the owners, and that the visions brought forward have close alignment towards private motivations and ambitions. In an endeavor, to explain the idea of stimulus within small businesses, various conjectures have been placed onward and these include; theory Y and X, motivation- Hygiene theory, and performance readiness level and leadership style.
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas in his explanation of worker motivation proposed two theories that are theory X, and theory Y. The two theories start with the principle that, management’s responsibility in an organization puts together, the factors involved in creation, for the financial advantage of the firm. According to Douglas’s theory X, a typical individual abhors toil and tries to evade working by any means. These people lack ambition, disregard any form of responsibility, and prefer to follow than take up the leading role. The average populaces also have self- centered approaches; therefore, have little to care about the organizations undertakings (Abahe 1). The average persons also have a shear opposition for changes and are often credulous and not intelligent in most cases. In short, the theory presents the assumption that the average citizens have only two points in mind, and these are money and security (Abahe 1). The theory further utilizes two approaches and these are the soft approach and the hard approach. In the hard approach, intimidation or compulsions dominate the working environment. The other strategies utilized in this approach include; inherent threats, close management and rigid controls. This suggests that the presented environment in the hard approach is an environment full of commands and power. In the soft approach, the management seeks peace and permissiveness bearing in thought that the employees will respond to the management through cooperation, therefore, generating motivation. However, the hard approach has no much to add to business since it only results into aggression, low output and in severe cases, union demands may arise (Abahe 1). According to McGregor, optimal management under the theory appears in between the two extremes (Abahe 1). In the end, the theorist asserts that the two approaches cannot be appropriate since the assumptions presented in the theory are incorrect.
In theory Y, the needs in the high level in one’s life and the level of personality actualization are rarely achieved although they can act as the motivating agents in an organization. The general assumption put forward in theory Y include; work can appear to be natural just like play or break. Individuals’ manage to meet the work objectives provided they have the commitment. Individuals appear to have commitments once the...