Motivation in Organizations

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Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill.

Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to choose certain behaviors from among the many alternatives open to them. Motivation And Performance In Organizations.
An employee's performance typically is influenced by motivation, ability, and the work environment. Some deficiencies can be addressed by providing training or altering the environment, motivation problems are not as easily addressed. Motivation is important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature.

Evolution can be traced from scientific management, through the human relations movement, to the human resource approach.

o Scientific management:
The assumptions of scientific management were that work is inherently unpleasant for most people and the money they earn is more important to employees than is the nature of the job they are performing.

o Human relations movement:
This school of thought emphasized the role of social processes in organizations and assumed that the need for belongingness and the need to feel useful are more important than money in motivating employees.  

o Human resource approach:
This view assumes that people want to contribute to organizational effectiveness and are able to make genuine contributions. The organization's responsibility is to create a work environment that makes full use of available human resources. The human resource approach guides most thinking about motivation today, but three integrative approaches conceptualize motivation more completely: need-based, process-based, and reinforcement-based approaches.

Need-based approaches to motivation focus on what motivates employees to choose certain behaviors as shown on the following diagram. [pic]
Two need-based approaches are need hierarchies and the dual-structure approach.
Need Hierarchies
Two of the most popular need hierarchies are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy and Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory of motivation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: o physiological,

o security,
o belongingness,
o esteem, and
o self-actualisation.
The hierarchical arrangement suggests that the five levels of needs are arranged in order of increasing importance, starting with physiological needs. According to the theory, when needs at one level are satisfied, they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs, but it does not supply a complete picture.  

Alderfer developed the ERG theory of motivation in response to criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy.  
o ERG stands for existence, relatedness, and growth needs ERG theory. Existence needs are satisfied by food and water pay fringe benefits and working conditions. Relatedness needs are satisfied by relationships with co workers, superiors family and friends. Growth needs cover the need to advance and develop. o As with Maslow's theory, assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy, but it has two important differences: ▪ ERG theory suggests that more than one level of needs can cause motivation at the same time; ▪ ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level, the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level, and begin to pursue lower-level needs again.  

The Dual-Structure Approach To Motivation.
The dual-structure approach was developed by Frederick Herzberg and is often referred to as the two-factor theory. Herzberg's studies of accountants and engineers led him to suggest that entirely different sets of...
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