Axia College of University of Phoenix
Henry Murray was active in developing a theory of motivation during the 1930’s, 40’s, 50’s and 60’s. He believed that a need is a potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances. (Murray, et al. 1938, p. 124). Murray’s theory assumed that when a person lacks something it drives them and keeps them motivated. Murray’s theory classified needs into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary needs are biologically based and include food, water, air and avoidance of pain. Secondary needs are either derived from our biological needs or are inherent in our psychological nature. Secondary needs include achievement, recognition, dominance, aggression, rejection, nurturance and affiliation. Murray also believed that stronger needs lead to more intense behavior and are expressed over time. Murray’s needs theory is sometimes studied as part of the trait perspective because needs are seen as being related to traits.
Madonna rocketed to stardom so quickly in 1984 that it obscured most of her musical virtues. (Erlewine, n.d.). One of Madonna’s greatest achievements is how she manipulated the public with not only her music, but her publicity and sexuality as well. Madonna was arguably the first female pop star to have complete control of her music as well as her image. Madonna moved from Michigan to New York in 1977 in hopes of becoming a ballet dancer. In 1979 she became part of a disco outfit that had a hit called “Born to Be Alive”. She traveled to Paris with the group and when she returned to New York she formed the Breakfast Club with Dan Gilroy, whom she met in Paris. The Breakfast Club was a pop dance group. Madonna’s first single was titled “Everybody” and became popular at the end of 1982. Her second single was released in 1983 and was titled “Physical Attraction”. Another single followed closely in June...
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