When people join an organization, they bring with them certain drives and needs that affect their on-the-job performance. Sometimes these are immediately apparent, but often they not only are difficult to determine and satisfy but also vary greatly from one person to another. Understanding how needs create tensions which stimulate effort to perform and how effective performance brings the satisfaction of rewards is useful for managers. Several approaches to understanding internal drives and needs within employees are examined in the chapter. Each model makes a contribution to our understanding of motivation. All the models share some similarities. In general, they encourage managers not only to consider lower-order, maintenance, and extrinsic factors but to use higher-order, motivational, and intrinsic factors as well. Behavior modification focuses on the external environment by stating that a number of employee behaviors can be affected by manipulating their consequences. The alternative consequences include positive and negative reinforcement punishment, and extinction. Reinforcement can be applied according to either continuous or partial schedules. A blending of internal and external approaches is obtained through consideration of goal setting. Managers are encouraged to use cues—such as goals that are accepted, challenging, and specific—to stimulate desired employee behavior. In this way, goal setting, combined with the reinforcement of performance feedback, provides a balanced approach to motivation. . : . Additional approaches to motivation presented in this chapter are the expectancy and equity models. The- expectancy model states that motivation is a product of how much one wants something-and the probabilities that effort will lead to task accomplishment and reward. The formula is valence X expectancy X instrumentality = motivation. Valence is the strength of a person's preference for an outcome. Expectancy is the strength of belief that one's effort will be successful in accomplishing a task. Instrumentality is the strength of belief that successful performance will be followed by a reward.
The expectancy and equity motivational models relate specifically to the employee’s intellectual processes. The equity model has a double comparison in it a match between an employee's perceived inputs and outcomes, coupled with a comparison with some referent person's rewards for her or his input level. In addition, employees use the procedural justice model to assess the fairness of how rewards are distributed. Managers are encouraged to combine the perspectives of several models to create a complete motivational environment for their employees.
Motivation is the set of internal & external forces that cause an employee to choose a course of action and engage in certain behavior.
A Model of Motivation :
Although a few spontaneous human activities occur without motivation, nearly all conscious behavior is motivated or caused. Growing hair requires no motivation, but getting a haircut does. Eventually, anyone will fall asleep without motivation (although parents with young children may doubt this), but going to bed is a conscious act requiring motivation manager’s job is to identify employees’ drives and needs and to channel their behavior, to motivate them, toward task performance. The role of motivation in performance is summarized in the model of motivation in Figure 5.1. Internal needs and drives create tensions that are affected by one’s environment. For example, the need for food produces a tension of hunger. The hungry person then Environment
Needs and drive
Goals and incentive
FIGURE 5.1 A Model of Mitivation
examines the surroundings to see which foods (external...