An emotion, desire, physiological need and or similar impulse that acts as an encouragement to action. Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. It is an internal state that activates and gives direction to thoughts, feelings and action. Types and Nature of Motives:
Internal desire to perform a particular task. For example, pleasure, mastery etc. Before to be intrinsically motivated, one must satisfy more basic human needs. Extrinsic motivation:
Desire to perform a particular task when factors are external. For example money, good grades. There are further three categorizations of motivation:
The ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes. For example, Sweating when internal temperature becomes excessive and shivering to produce heat. Homeostatic motives include hunger, thirst and respiration and these motives work to keep the body in balanced state and are caused by bodily deficiencies and excesses. Biogenic Motives:
These are also called non-homeostatic motives. These are occasional and involve sex, curiosity about environment.
These are also called learned motives. These motives seem to develop through experience and continue to evolve and influence behavior throughout life. For example, Need for achievement, power, approval and social affiliation. Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:
Drive Reduction Theory
According to Clark Hull (1943, 1952), humans have internal biological needs which motivate them to perform a certain way. These needs, or drives, are defined by Hull as internal states of arousal or tension which must be reduced. A prime example would be the internal feelings of hunger or thirst, which motivates us to eat. According to this theory, we are driven to reduce these drives so that we may maintain a sense of internal calmness.
Arousal theory states that we are driven to maintain a certain level of arousal in order to feel comfortable. Arousal refers to a state of emotional, intellectual, and physical activity. It is different from the above theory, however, because it doesn't rely on only a reduction of tension, but a balanced amount. It also does better to explain why people climb mountains, go to school, or watch sad movies.
Freud’s Theory of Motivation:
Freud believed that humans have only two basic drives: Eros and Thanatos, or the Life and Death drives. According to Psychoanalytic theory, everything humans do, every thought humans have, and every emotion humans experience has one of two goals: to help in survival or to prevent destruction. This is similar to instinct theory , however, Freud believed that the vast majority of our knowledge about these drives is buried in the unconscious part of the mind. Kurt Levin’s Theory of Motivation:
He was Father of Social Psychology. Lewis also proposed a basic state of equilibrium between the person and the environment. He further stated that any interruptions in this equilibrium will lead to tension, which then will result in some behavior to decrease the level of tension in the individual. To explain human motivation, Levin stated that behavior involves a cycle of tension-states or need states that are then followed by activity and relief. Measurement of Human Motivation
Thematic Apperception Test:
The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a projective psychological test. Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests. Its adherents assert that the TAT taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities. Academic motivation scale
A mental state that...