Motivation and Atitudes Towards Learning

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Background of the Study
language has become a gl
obal language or a means
for international
communication. The significance of English as
the world wide language is clearly stated.
Crystal (1997) and Nunan (
2003) suggest that as the gener
al consensus English has
become a global language, a language which is
widely used in higher
education, business,
technology, science, and the internet.
For effective communication, there is
a need to attain lan
guage proficiency in
order to excel in various aspects. Thus, it is
important for students to master the language
to catch up with the current trends.
To achieve standard levels of students’
communications skills, various English-medium
universities have been
using English as a
medium of instruction apart from offering va
rious English major courses, in the hope of
training students for maximum proficiency.
However, such strategy is not without its
obstacles. Jochems (1993) stated that fo
r foreign students who are not first English
language speakers, “the lower the le
vel of English proficiency, t
he more important a factor it
becomes in accomplishing language skills.
The level of success of language learning.
Among various factors, motivation, is
cited as vital affecting language learning (
Lambert, 1963). It is further claimed that
motivation has direct effect on language achiev
ement Garner (1985). Motivation is defined
as the extent ones strive to acquire the la
nguage because of the des
ire to do so and the
satisfaction derived from it Garner (1985).
Furthermore, motivation in learning the
language is classified into two
main types: integrative motiva
tion with genuine interest in
communicating with and becoming similar to
members of target
language community and
integrative with interest in pragmatic gains;
seeking a better job or
a higher salary .etc.,
Gardner and Lambert (1972). Motivation is, also,
said to combine the effort plus desire to
achieve the goal as well as favorable attit
udes of learning the
language Gardner (1985).
Dornyei, and Noels (1994) also
reveal that achievement in
English language of Hungarian
students is significantly relat
ed to motivational indices.
Motivation is, thus, considered significant
in its roles in langua
ge learning success.
Along this line of thoughts, students’ motivation
toward English language learning can, to a
certain degree, influence their learning results.
However, many previous research
ers have suggested that, students may not
necessarily possess desired learning motivation.
And for survival or convenience reasons
for English language learning, students may be
inclined toward instrumental motivation
which can somehow affect their learning effi
ciency. With the accepted significance of
motivation on language learning, numerous
research studies hav
e been conducted among
student groups enrolled in various English-medi
um institutions to determine their dominant
types of learning motivation. Interestingly, se
veral researchers have revealed that their
researched undergraduate students enrolled in En
glish-mediium univers
ities mainly learn
English for instrumental reasons. For instanc
e, Hyland (1997) found
this tendency in his
researched Hong
Kong tertiary students. Liu (2005) agr
eed with this not
ion based on the
result of her study of Chinese students at a Sout
hern University in China. Rahman (2005)
confirmed his similar findings of Bangl
adeshi undergraduate students while Kuiper (2007)
presented a similar scenario of Chinese
undergraduates studying at New Zealand
Nevertheless, contrary to these re
searchers’ findings, Moiinvaziri (2002)
discovered that Iranian students are both equa
lly highly motivated instrumentally and
integratively to learn English language. In this
case, Moiinvaziri’s discovery is unusually rare
as a majority of researched students are pr
edominantly instrumentally...
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