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Literature Review

Topic. Motivation
Title. Motivation in the workplace

Motivation is a key important influence element in an organization growth and development, it is important that manager and leader in organization understand and recognise the important and effect motivation can impact on their organization. ‘’Motivation is the driving force within individuals that compels them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations,’’ (Lam and Tang, 2003, p61).Motivation is so complicated to defined, but in a simplified term is ‘’what cause people to behave as they do’’ (Denhardt et al. 2008, p.146) unfortunately this definition conceal the dynamic intricacies of the motivation literature. Henceforth, this research will explore the literature surrounding motivation.

Literature Review of Motivation in Workplace
Motivation is such a significant element in an organization improvement, every establishment need to have a better understanding of how it relates to job satisfaction and rewards systems. Henceforth, it becomes one of the utmost topics in modern business environment. This research provides a detailed literature review surrounding motivation in a thematic and quasi-chronological style as to enable a better understand of the various facets of motivation theories. Because motivation is so gruelling to define, it may help in examining Denhardt and Aristigueta (2008) examples of what motivation is not. Motivation cannot be measured or observed directly. ‘’Motivation is an internal state that causes people to behave in a particular way to accomplish particular goals and purposes. It is possible to observe the outward manifestations of motivation but not motivation itself’’ (Denhardt et al., 2008, p147). For example, the acquisition of money is perceived as an extrinsic motivator, this research indicate that when an employee receive monetary bonus is usually used to pay expenses, bills or purchase their needs, as is not sometimes used in something they truly enjoy. Therefore, money becomes an in-personal gift. However, an employer can motivate their employee by giving a sincere gift that will create loyalty and dedication of the employee such as award or gift that will touch them personally.

Motivation is simply not the same as satisfaction, and motivation cannot be controlled. ‘’Put simply, satisfaction is past oriented, whereas motivation is future oriented’’ (Denhardt et al., 2008, p147). While an employee may be contented by the reward of their job, this same employee might not be entirely motivated to continue doing their job.( Igalens et al.,1999). Henceforth, an effective manager must recognize what will motivate his employee to perform and how to gratify his needs. Hamner stated ‘’this in another way by saying that in order to understand how to motivate their subordinates, managers needs to know what energizes human behaviour (Hanmer et al., 1978, p137). Manager and leader in organization need to realize that different people in the workplace want various things from their job, hence not one way of motivation will satisfy everyone. Motivation within individual in the workplace cannot be control directly. ‘’Motivation is not something that people do to others, motivation occurs within people’s mind and hearts. Manager and leader in establishment can influence the motivational process, but they cannot control it’’ (Denhardt et al., 2008, p147). This research presents an overview of three main theories that explain motivation in the workplace and address the factors that attribute to job satisfaction (Motivation) or cause job dissatisfaction. Henceforth, the classic theories of motivation from Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland will be taking into consideration and how they are relevant in the workplace. According to Maslow’s theory of need people are motivated by a variety of needs and can be classified into five needs categories. Thus,...
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