The subject of human is more complex than animal motivation for two reasons: 1. Humans mature more slowly than to the animals and hence, motivational tendencies are also acquired much more slowly. 2. Man is dependent on a lot of his essential satisfactions on others even using symbolic language to communicate his desires.
Although both animals and man carry on fundamental maintenance needs in similar manner – like the biological need for water, air, food, excretion, rest, etc., man’s goal striving behaviors and consummatory responses to the goal have opened more speculation and theorizing chiefly on the hidden events, the crucial internal events which are not readily evident.
So from a pattern of neutral theorizing – likening motivation to a simple electric circuit, studies have subsequently moved to supporting data on continuing internal circuits to the cerebral cortex, to hormonal and bloodstream changes, to psychological drugs, to homeostasis, to Freud’s motivational schema and A.H. Maslow’s hierarchy of motives.
A. THE MEANING AND NATURE OF MOTIVES
Motivation is the hypothetical concepts that stands for the underlying force impelling behavior and giving it direction. It implies active, integrated and directed behavior. When we speak of motivation therefore, we may refer both to the energy expended in goal-seeking or to the internal or external factors which help initiate and maintain organized effort.
Motives can then be conceived as predisposition towards certain kinds of behavior which have developed within the individual as a result of the relative success of his varied attempts at satisfying his needs. Motivation involves a complex interaction within the individual and the total environment it which he lives. This illustrated in the motive of peer approval which becomes a motive to the individual to the extent that it satisfies his need of belonging and social recognition.
There are common implications in the... [continues]
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