1.1 The Concept of Motivation
Motivation may be defined as psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles. It may also be defined as the Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. Motivation is so central to management because it explains why people behave the way they do in organizations. Motivation can come from intrinsic or extrinsic sources.
➢ Intrinsically Motivated behavior:- is behavior that is performed for its own sake; the source of motivation is actually performing the behavior, and motivation comes from doing the work itself. We can say that intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. This motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task. Many managers are intrinsically motivated; they derive a sense of accomplishment and achievement from helping their organization to achieve their goals and gain a competitive advantage. But intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. ➢ Extrinsically motivated behavior:- is behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment; the source of motivation is the consequences of the behavior, not the behavior itself. Extrinsic motivation Engages in an activity with expectations to receive something separate from the activity itself, or to accomplish something to make an impression on others by showing one's competency. When individuals engage in activities that are not personally enjoyable to them but grant them something else we call that motivation extrinsic. 1.2 Early Theories of Motivation
One early view of motivation derives from the concept of Hedonism –the idea that people seek pleasure and comfort and try to avoid pain and discomfort. This philosophy which argues that pleasure is the ultimate importance and is the most pursuit of humanity, dominated and shaped early thinking of human motivation. Even if this theory seems reasonable as far as it applies to the current society, there are still many kinds of behavior that it cannot explain. For instance, why do recreational athletes train themselves very hard willingly and regularly while hedonism suggests that people are always seeking to relax? And why do volunteers spend their time working untiringly to collect money for charity events? As experts eventually realized that the concept of hedonism is very limited and does not adequately explain the view of human behavior, other perspectives of motivation stood out. 1.3 Contemporary Theories of Motivation
The following theories are considered contemporary, since they represent the current state of the art in explaining employee motivation. 1.3.1 Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Clayton alderfer’s ERG theory collapses the five categories of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy in to three universal categories – existence, relations, and growth. E- Needs for physiological and material well-being
R- Needs for satisfying interpersonal relationships
G- Needs for continued personal growth & development
He agrees with maslow that as lower –level needs become satisfied, a person seeks to satisfy higher – level needs....