Motivation could be defined as a process which account for a person's passion, direction, and perseverance of effort toward attaining a goal, and motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal, George et al (2010). In today’s competitive and challenging world of business getting good and efficient people for any organisation it could be considered as creating the best skill base which is the foundation for any business. The best managers always try to retain their best people since the success is drawn from their motivated team. Motivation is directly associated with the success of any organisation. Staff members are motivated by many factors. Certain individuals may have financial goals; on the other hand others may have professional goals or personal goals. Hence one goal or motivation factor may not be common to all. In the past, when people did not have much money, they were motivated to work and to get a big salary. In the contemporary world, however, most of the employees are earn a good salary and comfortable in their jobs, and it is difficult to motivate them, only by providing pay rise. This essay mainly outlines some of the reasons why cash is not always a best motivator further this essay also will focus on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory and Adam’s Equity theory to explore the relationship between these motivational theories and will identify the strength and weakness of practising these theories in today’s contemporary work environment to motivate the staff of any organisation.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
In the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, Maslow defined that there are five levels of needs such as physiological need, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation needs, and these are grouped into two orders. Such as lower-order and higher-order needs and Lower-order needs include desire to fulfil physiological and safety needs. Higher-order needs include desire to fulfil social need, esteem and self-actualization needs. (Maslow, 1943) Money usually plays an important role in meeting low-order needs, because money could buy food the need that are satisfied externally such as clothing, shelter and safety etc. But it is important to note that money or pay rise cannot buy the higher-level needs of the employees such as self-esteem and self-actualisation, which are satisfied internally hence according Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, it is understood that money could motivate employees only to certain extent in satisfying their external needs. In the article, pay rise isn’t everything, Knight (12 Sep 2012) The Age, it was mentioned that money alone cannot motivate people and hierarchy of needs theory do support the arguments because money only can provide lower-order needs hence organisation should focus on job recognition and having positive culture etc. to motivate the employees. According to Maslow people would like to satisfy their next level of needs once they have fulfilled and satisfied with their lower level of needs and their final motivator would be Self-actualization needs, which is the highest level of need, and it relates to continuously focusing on personal growth, problem solving, life appreciation, and peak experiences for oneself, Huitt (2004). In the contemporary world it may not be possible to practice Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because people at different level of their needs, hence the managers needs to understand the employees current level needs to provide them hence it is not possible to motivate all the employees with the same motivation factor further Maslow’s concept of self-actualization represents “everything that one is capable of becoming and he felt that the capacity for this concept was essential to all human beings. Maslow believed achieving the self-actualisation would result in the completion of the progression. But in reality it is unattainable because...
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