Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivational theories Pages: 30 (9389 words) Published: March 31, 2013
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Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. It's the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day.[1] These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior. In summary, motivation can be defined as the purpose for, or psychological cause of, an action. [2] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Types of theories and models * 1.1 Mono-motivational theories * 1.2 Conscious and unconscious motivations * 2 Non-psychological theories * 2.1 Platonic theory of motivation * 2.2 Machiavellianism * 3 Psychological theories and models * 3.1 Rational motivations * 3.2 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation * 3.3 Push and pull * 3.4 Self-control * 3.5 Drives * 3.6 Incentive theory * 3.7 Escape-seeking dichotomy model * 3.8 Drive-reduction theory * 3.9 Cognitive dissonance theory * 3.10 Need theories * 3.10.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs * 3.10.2 Herzberg's two-factor theory * 3.10.3 Alderfer's ERG theory * 3.10.4 Self-determination theory * 3.11 Temporal motivation theory * 3.12 Achievement motivation * 3.13 Cognitive theories * 3.13.1 Goal-setting theory * 3.14 Models of behavior change * 3.15 Conscious motivation * 3.16 Unconscious motivation * 3.17 Thematic Appreception Test * 3.18 Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory * 3.19 Approach versus avoidance * 4 Practical applications * 4.1 Employee motivation * 4.1.1 Job Characteristics Model * Motivating Potential Score * 4.1.2 Employee Recognition Programs * 4.2 Drugs * 4.3 Education * 4.3.1 Indigenous Education, Learning, and Motivation * 4.3.2 Sudbury Model schools' approach * 4.4 Business * 4.5 Games * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading| -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Types of theories and models
[edit]Mono-motivational theories
A class of theories about why people do things seeks to reduce the number of factors down to one and explain all behaviour through that one factor. For example, economics has been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. [3] Mono-motivational theories are often criticized for being too reductive or too abstract. [edit]Conscious and unconscious motivations

A number of motivational theories emphasize the distinction between conscious and unconscious motivations. In evolutionary psychology, the "ultimate", unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions. For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male's genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the conscious rationalization could be, "I loved her...
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