Motivation

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MOTIVATION
Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class.

There are generally said to be two basic types of motivation – intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation stems from desires within the individual that compel him or her to complete the task at hand. This type of motivation typically involves enjoyment of the task in and in itself. People who are intrinsically motivated often attribute their successes to the amount of effort they put forth, and they credit their failures to a lack of personal effort. People who are intrinsically motivated believe that their fate is in their own hands.

Extrinsic motivation is different in that the drives to complete an action come from outside forces. Some examples of extrinsic motivation include money, notoriety, competition, good grades, praise, and even fear of punishment. People who are extrinsically motivated might attribute their successes to luck or fate. They might blame their failures on others or on the situation. For example, a student who is extrinsically motivated might claim that he failed his math exam because his teacher does not like him. Self-determination theory suggests that certain tasks which initially are extrinsically motivating might be eventually internalized by an individual if the action is deemed beneficial and fits within the individual’s value-framework.

Financial Motivators:
Pay
Pay can be given in two ways
Wages
Often paid every week, sometimes in cash or sometimes into a bank account. It is a common way of remuneration for manual workers those who work in factories and warehouse. It can be calculated in two ways: * Piece Rate: this is where the workers are paid depending on the quantity of products made. The more they make the more they get paid. This system of wages is followed where the output can be counted. * Time Rate: This payment by the hour. The longer you work the more you get paid. This system of wages is followed where the output cannot be measured.

Salaries
Salaries are paid monthly. It is common for office and administrative staff.

Additional methods of financial motivation:

Commission: It is often paid to sales staff. The certain percentage of commission is paid to sales person who exceed a certain level of sales. It motivates the sales staff to sell more. Profit Sharing: Employees receive a share of the profits in addition to their basic salary.

Bonus: Extra amount is paid to workers once a year or at intervals during the year as an appreciation of their hard work.

Performance related pay: Employee pay is linked to their performance in work. An Appraisal is carried out for the employee and they get paid according to their appraisal.

Share ownership: As a gesture of appreciation for the hard work of the employees a business might offer stock options to its employees. This motivates them to worker even harder because they are also the owners of the company. Non-financial methods of motivation

Most businesses recognise the need for non-financial methods of motivation. The main ones are described briefly below: Job enlargement
Job enlargement involves adding extra, similar, tasks to a job. In job enlargement, the job itself remains essentially unchanged.  However, by widening the range of tasks that need to be performed, hopefully the employee will experience less repetition and monotony. With job enlargement, the employee rarely needs to...
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