Critically appraise the international expansion strategy of Mothercare In order to effectively appraise the international strategy of Mothercare it is important to understand the motives behind the expansion and highlight that retailers consider internalisation for different reasons (Sternquest 1997). Retailers may be “pushed” out of their home market as saturation and competition increases or alternatively “pulled” to international markets as the retailer has global appeal and the ambition to internationalise. Mothercare indicate there ambition to internationalise with their aim of building the brand to the leading specialise retailer for parenting products. This clearly illustrates the retailers ambition and intent to become a global retailer and thus the need for strategy to be discussed. Mothercare are confident with their universal appeal as the expectant mother and her child share characteristics that are the same everywhere. Mothercare indicate there internalisation movement was based around there universal appeal and felt that the business should move to where the market opportunities are much greater and competition much less. This would indicate clear pull factors with over 99.5% of the UK’s population outside the UK. It would however be naive to suggest that the fierce competition, continual reduction in like-for-like sales and the economic backdrop where not at the heart of the internationalisation. Tredgold 1988 suggests that there are a number of strategies that can be adopted depending on the amount of control the retailer wants and the resources it’s willing to invest. Generally an increase in cost will result in an increase in control. Mothercare adopted a low cost and low control model and looked to franchise the business. Illustrations of the retailer’s expansion strategy would indicate that in early expansion Mothercare would classify as a concentrated retailer with many of their ventures within a close proximity. These were safe moves as...

...Thermal Expansion and Contraction
Most of the matters, without some exceptions, expand with the increasing temperature. When you give heat to matters; speed of its particles increase and distance between them also increase which results in the increase of the volumes of matters. All expansions occurs in volume of the substance however, sometimes some of the dimensions of them expand more with respect to others. In this case we neglect the less expanded ones and assume expansion like linear expansion in long materials. Moreover, we take the expansion of plate as area expansion and finally we take the expansion in three dimensions as volume expansion.
thermal expansion
Inverse of the expansion is called contraction, generally when matters lost heat and their temperatures decrease they contract. Now we will learn which factors effect expansion.
If the initial volumes, areas or lengths of the matters are big enough their expansions with the same temperature are also big. In other words, expansion or contraction is linearly proportional to the initial volume of the matter.
Different matters have different atomic structure, thus distances between the atoms are also different. They give different reactions to the same amount of temperature changes. So, another factor effecting...

...SMJK AVE MARIA CONVENT
SCIENCE
B6D7E1 – The Principles of expansion and contraction of matter
Name: Lim Li Fern (14)
Class: 1P11
Identification Card No.: 990412-11-5206
Subject teacher: Puan Norlida
Heat does to matter is changes it state. There is something more subtle though that can cause big problems. Look at this devise. When you heat both this ball and the ring the ring expands like a long bar of metal. The ball expands less so when they are heated the ball fits through the ring. You may want to look for these and try this demo as many of you probably have these.
Another neat tool to show the expansion of metals is this bimetal bar. It is made with one metal on one side and another metal on the other side. One metal expands more rapidly so the bar twists when heated.
This affects things in the real world drastically. If this is not considered when building something we can end up with a road buckling. Engineers then plan for the expansion and contraction due to heat.
In a pipe we may see special parts like this or this so that the pipe can expand in length without breaking.
Behaviour of matter - Expansion and contractioncontraction
Substances expand or get bigger when they are heated up. They contractor get smaller when they are cooled down. This property can be useful.
* Thermometers work because the liquid inside them expands and rises up the tube when it gets...

...Purpose: In this lab, we will heat up a metal rod and measure how much it expands. We will calculate its Coefficient of Linear Expansion, α, and prove the formula for thermal expansion, ΔL = αLiΔT. Also, we heat up a known volume of methyl alcohol and calculate its Coefficient of Volume Expansion, β, and prove the formula for volume expansion of a liquid ΔV = βViΔT.
Equipment: Hollow Metal Rods of different metals, Steam Generator, Stand, Burner, Flexible Hoses, Motion Amplifier, Micrometer, Meter Stick, Thermometer, Methyl Alcohol, Test Tubes, Beaker, Vernier Caliper, Rod, and Clamps
Procedure: For the first part of the lab, we try to prove the formula for thermal expansion, ΔL = αLiΔT. We first set up the lab by pouring water into the steam generator about three quarters full and then placing the top on it. Then we grab the flexible hoses and connect them to both ends of a metal rod. We then connect the end with the grove to the steam generator and then other we place paper towels underneath them, knowing that steam is going to come out from there. We measure the diameter of the pin, p=0.00303m, and then place the knife-edge support and the rollers and pin a distance and pin a bit smaller than the length of the rod. We place the knife-edge support on the groove on the rod and the other end of the rod on top of the rollers and pin. Now that it has been set up, we write down the length of...

...Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer.
The coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Specifically, it measures the fractional change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure. Several types of coefficients have been developed: volumetric, area, and linear. This is used depending on the particular application and which dimensions are considered important. For solids, one might only be concerned with the change along a length, or over some area.
Over small temperature ranges, the linear nature of thermal expansion leads to expansion relationships for length, area, and volume in terms of the linear expansion coefficient.
Linear Expansion
The relationship governing the linear expansion of a long thin rod can be reasoned out as follows:
General volumetric thermal expansion coefficient
In the general case of a gas, liquid, or solid, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion is given by
The subscript p indicates that the pressure is held constant during the expansion, and the subscript "V" stresses that it is the volumetric (not linear) expansion that enters this general definition. In the case of a gas,...

...Thermal Expansion
Experiment No. 2
*Santos, Patricia Mary O.
Aquino, Junior Emil S.
Bautista, Jennina
Besana, Carra Sophiya
Lime, Jerricson
III-32 BSE General Science
July 02, 2012
Abstract
This experiment is done to determine the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of different materials. The different temperature coefficient is obtained through the use of an apparatus for measuring the linear expansion. The PASCO Thermal Expansion Apparatus was use to measure the thermal expansion to get the temperature coefficient. All metals which are used in the experiment all expanded due to the rising of the temperature. The temperature coefficient obtained from experiment is close to the actual or accepted temperature coefficient.
Introduction
The coefficient of thermal expansion (α) is defined as the fractional increase in the length per unit rise in temperature. It is a material property that is indicative of the extent to which a material expands upon heating. Different substances expand by different amounts. Over small temperature ranges, the thermal expansion of uniform linear objects is proportional to temperature change. Thermal expansion finds useful application in bimetallic strips for the construction of thermometers but can generate detrimental internal stress when a structural part is heated and kept at constant length....

...Page 1 of 4
Expansion Devices I. Introduction
Expansion devices are basic components of a refrigeration system which carry out two major purposes: (1) the pressure reduction from the condenser to evaporator pressure and (2) the regulation of refrigerant flow into the evaporator. These expansion devices can be generally classified into two types which are namely the fixed opening type (flow area is fixed) and the variable opening type (flow area changes correspondingly with a change in mass flow rates). There are about seven basic types of expansion devices for a refrigerant in a refrigeration system. These include capillary tubes and orifice which are under the fixed opening type and the manual expansion valves, automatic expansion valve (AEV), thermostatic expansion valve (TEV), electronic expansion valve and float type expansion valve which are all under the variable opening type. The float type expansion valve is further classified into high side float valve and low side float valve (Arora, 2006). One of the most commonly used expansion device is the capillary tube. For the purpose of this exercise, a computation related to it will be performed. In a lesson guide on expansion devices prepared by Prof. R.C. Arora in 2006, he/she defined a capillary tube as “…a long, narrow tube of constant diameter....

...Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change intemperature.[1] All materials have this tendency.
When a substance is heated, its particles begin moving more and thus usually maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are rare; this effect is limited in size, and only occurs within limited temperature ranges. The degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature.
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Overview
[edit]Predicting expansion
If an equation of state is available, it can be used to predict the values of the thermal expansion at all the required temperatures andpressures, along with many other state functions.
[edit]Contraction effects
A number of materials contract on heating within certain temperature ranges; this is usually called negative thermal expansion, rather than "thermal contraction". For example, the coefficient of thermal expansion of water drops to zero as it is cooled to roughly 4 °C and then becomes negative below this temperature, this means that water has a maximum density at this temperature, and this leads to bodies of water maintaining this temperature at their lower depths during extended periods of sub-zero weather. Also, fairly pure...

...Determinant Expansion by Minors
Also known as "Laplacian" determinant expansion by minors, expansion by minors is a technique for computing thedeterminant of a given square matrix . Although efficient for small matrices, techniques such as Gaussian elimination are much more efficient when the matrix size becomes large.
Let denote the determinant of a matrix , then
where is a so-called minor of , obtained by taking the determinant of with row and column "crossed out."
For example, for a matrix, the above formula gives
The procedure can then be iteratively applied to calculate the minors in terms of subminors, etc. The factor is sometimes absorbed into the minor as
in which case is called a cofactor.
The equation for the determinant can also be formally written as
where ranges over all permutations of and is the inversion number of (Bressoud and Propp 1999).
In linear algebra, the Laplace expansion, named after Pierre-Simon Laplace, also called cofactor expansion, is an expression for the determinant |B| of an n × n square matrix B that is a weighted sum of the determinants of n sub-matrices of B, each of size (n−1) × (n−1). The Laplace expansion is of theoretical interest as one of several ways to view the determinant, as well as of practical use in determinant computation.
The i, j cofactor of B is the scalar Cij defined by
where Mij is the i, j minor matrix of B, that is,...