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A motherboard showing some major components
The main printed circuit board in a computer is known as the Motherboard. It is also known as System Board, Main Board or Printed Wired Board (PWB). It also sometimes abbreviated or shortened to mobo. Attached to it, we have numerous motherboard components that are crucial in the functioning of the computer. The motherboard acts as the connection point where major computer components are attached to. It holds many of the crucial components of the system like the processor, memory, expansion slots and connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC. The type of motherboard installed in a PC has a great effect on system speed and expansion capabilities. MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS
The motherboard holds all the major logic components of the computer. Here we are going to see with no particular order, some of those major motherboard componets and their function in a computer or to be more precise in your computer.
A core 2 Duo Intel Processor
CPU- Central Processing Unit
It is also known as the microprocessor or the processor. It is the brain of the computer, and it is responsible for fetching, decoding and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations. The processor chip is identified by the processor type and the manufacturer; and this information is usually inscribed on the processor chip e.g. Intel 386, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 386, Cyrix 486, Pentium MMX, (old processor types) Intel Core 2Duo e.t.c. If the processor chip is not on the motherboard, you can identify the processor socket as socket 1 to Socket 8, LGA 775 e.t.c. This can help you identify the processor that fits in the socket. For example a 486DX processor fits into Socket 3.
Main Memory / Random Access Memory (RAM)
Random access memory or RAMmost commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data when you are working with your computer to enhance the computer performance. In other words, it is the working place of your computer where active programs and data are loaded so that any time time the processor requres them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk which will take a longer access time. Random access memory is volatile memory, meaning it loses its contents once power is turned off. This is different from non-volatile memory such as hard disks and flash memory, which do not require a power source to retain data. When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in random access memory is returned back to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the next boot-up, RAM begins to fill with programs automatically loaded at startup, and with files opened by the user a process called booting.
BIOS- Basic Input Output System
BIOS is a term that stands for basic input/output system, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name—device drivers, or just drivers. In other words, the BIOS is drivers, meaning all of them. BIOS is essentially the link between hardware and software in a system. All motherboards include a small block of Read Only Memory (ROM) which is separate from the main system memory used for loading and running software. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions. The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used by the computer during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware. The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because ROM retains information even when no power is being supplied to the computer.