Most Common Behavioral Disorders of Childhood

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ADHD Research Proposal
Antonio Herron EDU626:
Research Design and Methodology (MRD1221B)
Instructor: Rita Daniel
July 3, 2012

Abstract
ADHD, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a behavioral condition that makes focusing on everyday requests and routines challenging. ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorders of childhood. In 2000 the disorder affected 3 to 7 of every 100 school-aged children (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000). Today ADHD affects between 1.5 and 3.5 million school-age children in the U.S., or an estimated 5% of all boys and 2% of all girls. This makes ADHD a major health concern. Up to 60% of these children will continue to have symptoms into adulthood. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than a million children take prescription medicines to control hyperactive behavior. The estimated cost to schools is about 3 billion dollars. There are other ways of treating ADHD and throughout this study we will discuss how to treat ADHD as well as explore how ADHD affects youth. ADHD is not only over diagnosed, but it is often mis-diagnosed, according to a recent study out of Germany. According to this research, many child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists in Germany have a picture in their heads of what an "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder "child or teen looks like, or acts like, and then a child or teen that fits that picture gets the diagnosis. In this process actual diagnostic criterion takes a back seat to “experience” or “heuristics.” But does this mean that ADHD is being “over diagnosed” because of poor diagnostic criteria, or due to poor diagnostic tools? No. Rather the problem is in the lack of using either diagnostic criteria or diagnostic tools. The reason for “over diagnosis” of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is sloppy diagnostic workups by these professionals. But the study was a little sloppy too. It draws “real world” conclusions from “pretend” or “theoretical” situations. No one examined actual patients or even their charts. So how do they know that in the "real world" that ADHD is being over diagnosed? The answer is that they don't. But they do have a better understanding of the process that busy professionals use in interpreting "case vignettes" that may or may not be Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abdekhodaie, April 2012)

Introduction
The main focus of this paper will be to examine ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and how it affects kids? I will also be exploring the cause of ADHD and what can be done to control this disorder without the use of medication. I predict that ADHD affects kids both mentally and physically. Mood swings are an emotional side effect of ADHD, affecting those of all ages with the condition. This symptom may prove hard to pinpoint, as changes in moods may also relate to stress or tense life situations, such as a divorce, moves and changes in school or jobs. Impulsivity is an emotional side effect of ADHD, which may cause individuals to become impatient and react inappropriately. Children with ADHD may receive discipline in school for blurting out comments and displaying seemingly rude behaviors. Anger is a normal human behavior. Individuals with ADHD, however, may have more trouble focusing on tasks and dealing with stress, which may cause frustration and heighten anger. (Martinez M, 2008)

I predict that ADHD is not a result of bad parenting
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of "bad parenting" or obnoxious, willful defiance on the part of the child. Yes, a child may be willfully defiant whether he has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or not. Defiance, rebelliousness, and selfishness are more often "moral" issues than neurological issues. We make no excuses for "immoral," "selfish," or "destructive" behaviors, whether from individuals with ADD ADHD or not. It may be true that the child or teen's parents...
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