Moral Order

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ETHICS: THEORY AND APPLICATION
MIDTERM EXAM

SECTION POINTS: SECTION #1: EACH CORRECT ANSWER IS WORTH TWO (2) POINTS. (2X5=10) SECTION #2: EACH CORRECT ANSWER IS WORTH FOUR (4) POINTS. (4X5=20) SECTION #3: EACH ANSWER IS WORTH 35 POINTS (2X35=70)

OVERALL POINTS= 10+20+70=100

Section :1: True/False questions.
Directions: please indicate if each statement is TRUE or FALSE. Each answer is worth two (2) points.

1. Ethical relativists claim that cultures ultimately share the same basic ethical principles.FALSE 2. Ethical relativists claim that even though cultures seem to differ on ethical standards, they ultimately share the same basic ethical principle--namely, moral goodness is that which produces happiness. FALSE 3 Ethical relativists argue that, because all moral values are relative to cultural or individual choice, no universally valid moral principles hold for all human beings. TRUE 4. For the cultural relativist, if a moral code of a society says that a certain action is right, it is right (at least within that society).TRUE 5. If moral objectivism is true, then homosexuality must be morally wrong.FALSE

SECTION #2: Multiple Choice:
Directions: Please choose correct answer.
Each answer is worth four (4) points.
6.. "Why be moral?" is a metaethical question rather than an ethical question insofar as it is concerned with: B (a) why someone would want to have a balanced personality or be a superior individual. (b) non-moral reasons for why someone should be moral.

(c) how it is morally wrong for someone to be immoral.
(d) what makes actions moral or immoral, right or wrong.
7. According to Ayn Rand's version of ethical egoism, it is not only possible for us to act in ways that beefit others; it is important that we do so, but only to the extent that: (a) our own self-interests are promoted through the promotion of the interest of others; (b) we don’t always act to promote our interests over the interests of others; (c) we act altruistically; (d) our lives incorporate the goals of aceticism, i.e., simplicity and self-denial. A 8.If psychological egoism is true, then no ethical system (including ethical egoism) is possible because: (a) ethics would then be merely a means by which individuals impose their values on other; (b) if we are determined to act only in our self-interest, then it makes no sense to say we ought to act either in our self-interest or, for that matter, in any other way either: (c) psychological egoism is a theory of why people are motivated to act morally, whereas ethical egoism is a theory of how moral distinctions are determined; (d) without some means to decide which acts are morally good or bad, there is no way to explain why people act the way they do. A 9. From a philosophical perspective, religious teachings or revelations cannot (by themselves) serve as standards of morality because: (a) the appeal to the will of God as the reason for one's behavior cannot provide a motive for acting morally or immorally, even for religious believers. (b) interpretations of religious revelations often conflict with one another and thus provide no definite basis for making moral judgments and have no persuasive power for non-believers. (c) some religious beliefs (even those based on the Scriptures) are not only factually wrong but, if followed, would result in immoral behavior. (d)religious teachings are usually interpreted and enforced through civil laws that become the bases for personal or social morality. B

10. To say that Plato's question "Why be moral?" is not a moral, but rather a meta-ethical question means that it is a question about: (a) what makes certain actions moral or immoral.
(b) how individuals should or should not be held responsible for the ways in which their consciences have been formed. (c) why someone should behave in certain ways, even when he agrees that it is the morally acceptable way to act. (d)why someone chooses to...
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