monism and dualism
1 Parmenides- Parmenides believed that the world is one unchanging being; and all human perception of change and motion are illusory. He did not acknowledge the void of the universe because he believed to do so would require one to believe that nothing exists as something which is a contradiction of logic. He believed that our perception of the world was somewhat of an encrypted code of the truth that can be deciphered through logic. Parmenides would apply this logic to ethical conduct by doing his best to look past the surface appearance of a moral issue and really consider every affect an action has on the world whether it is apparent or not. Also, because the universe is one unchanging being we must always consider ourselves one small part of an entire being when trying to make logical decisions in life.
Democritus- Democritus came up with the idea of atomism. This is the idea that everything we see is made up of more rudimentary parts called atoms. He believed that atoms fly through the void and bounce off of one another until they connect with something they are attracted to. Over time the atoms form themselves into more and more complex combinations. Based on this logic, Democritus believed that the universe is infinitely in motion and infinitely changing. He acknowledged the existence of the void as a plane to which atoms travel. He believed in the dualism of matter and void. By this logic, Democritus believed that societies, being one whole body made up of many people, can only thrive and become more complex by working as one united body. He stated that one is foolish to take pleasure in his neighbor’s tragedy because he does not realize that his society has to recover from that. Democritus believed in equality and democracy and found that things are able to progress most proficiently when at a stable equilibrium, rather than one party crushing another.
Lao Tzu- Lao Tzu believed that from the most basic form of nature Tao,...
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