1. Cash Reserve Ratio:
* Introduction: It is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with the RBI. * It is a central bank regulation that sets the minimum fraction of customer deposits and notes that each commercial bank must hold as reserves with the RBI. * Cash Reserve Ratio is also used as a tool in monetary policy by changing the amount of funds available for banks to make loans with. * Effects on money supply: If the reserve requirement set by the RBI is high, the amount of funds with the commercial banks to loan out would be low thereby leading to lower money creation in the economy and vice versa. * RBI uses the CRR to drain out excessive money from the system * India’s CRR – 4% January 2013 as per RBI
2. Statutory Liquidity Ratio: 23%
* Introduction: It is the money a commercial bank needs to preserve in the form of cash or gold or government approved securities (bonds) and shares) before providing credit to the customers. * It is determined by the RBI in order to control the expansion of bank credit. * It is a percentage of total demand and time liabilities (demand- savings , current a/c and time- fixed deposits) * It is used to regulate the credit growth in India.
* SLR ensures solvency of commercial banks.
* Effects on money supply: The RBI can increase the SLR to contain inflation and suck liquidity in the market. Higher the SLR, lower would be the money circulation as a commercial bank’s power to lend would come down and vice versa.
3. Repo Rate and Reverse...