Information Processing Theory of Learning
The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. Like the computer, the mind has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process Objectives
1 describe the principal on which cognitive learning theory are based. 2 use the characteristics of the memory store in our information processing system. 3 describe the cognitive process in our information processing system. Specific objectives
1 Describe the information processing model of memory.
2 Analyzes what cause people remember or forget
3 Explain what makes information meaning.
4 Describe how information processing theory helps students to learn. Content
Information Processing Learning Theory
The Information Processing theory is based on the assumption that information comes from the outside world into sensory registers in the brain. This input consists of things perceived by our senses. People are not consciously aware of most of the things they perceive; but become aware of them only if consciously directing attention to them. When attention is directed to them, they are placed in the working memory. George A. Miller is modifying this theory
Information processing theory focus on how people attend to environmental events encode information to be learned and relate it to knowledge in memory store it and retrieve it as needed. SHUNK 1996 •
The information processing theory is defined as “Theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which people mentally think about (“process”) the information they receive” (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). The four main beliefs of the information-processing approach 1.
When the individual perceives, encodes, represents, and stores information from the environment in his mind or retrieves that information, he is thinking. Thinking also includes responding to any constraints or limitations on memory processes. 2.
The proper focus of study is the role of change mechanism in development. Four critical mechanisms work together to bring about change in children’s cognitive skills: encoding, strategy construction, automatization, and generalization. To solve problems effectively, children must encode critical information about a problem and then use this encoded information and relevant prior knowledge to construct a strategy to deal with the problem 3.
Development is driven by self-modification. Like Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the information-processing approach holds that children play an active role in their own development. Through self-modification, the child uses knowledge and strategies she has acquired from earlier problem solution to modify her responses to a new situation or problem. In this way, she builds newer and more sophisticated responses from prior knowledge 4 Investigators must perform careful task analysis of the problem situations they present to children. According to this view, not only the child’s own level of development but the nature of the task itself constraints child’s performance. Thus a child may possess the basic ability necessary to perform a particular task when it is presented in a simple form, without unnecessary complexities. However, if extra or misleading information is added to the same task, the child may become confused and be unable to perform it Model of information processing Theory
In the store model of the human information-processing system, information from the environment that we acquire through our senses enter the system through the sensory register. •
The store model: A model of information...
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