Modes of Entering International Business

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The six major modes of international business are imports and exports, tourism and transportation, licensing and franchising, turnkey operations, management contracts, and direct and portfolio investment. Imports and exports are the most common mode of international business, particularly in smaller companies even though they are less likely to export. Large companies are more likely to engage in other modes of international business in conjunction with importing and exporting. Companies may import and export merchandise, defined as tangible goods brought into or out of (respectively) a country. While exports and imports apply mainly to goods, they can also apply to services, or nonproducts. Most service imports and exports revolve around tourism and transportation. The revenue gained from international tourism and transportation is best seen in hotels, airlines, travel agencies, and shipping companies. For many countries, especially in the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, their income on foreign tourism is more important than their income from exports. The same holds true in countries such as Norway and Greece, who earn a considerable amount from foreign shipping. Many companies enter into international licensing agreements, allowing other countries around the world to use their assets (ie: trademarks, patents, copyrights, or expertise) under contract, receiving royalty payments in return. Similarly, many companies engage in franchising, a mode of business where the franchisor allows the franchisee to use a trademark that is an essential part of the franchisee's business. For example, Gloria Vanderbilt has franchised her name out to several clothing companies, forming the Gloria Vanderbilt line. The franchisor also assists on a continuing basis in the operation of the business-for example, by providing components, management services, and technology. Companies also pay fees that may be incurred on an international level for engineering services handled through...
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