Modern Turkish Period (1923-Present)
1923 Establishment of the Turkish Republic with Ataturk as its first president
1924 Abolition of Caliphate
1925-38 Ataturk's program of reforms to modernize Turkey
1938 Death of Ataturk; Ismet Inonu becomes the Republic's second president
1939-45 Despite the alliance with Britain and France, Turkey remains neutral during World War II
1946 Turkey becomes a charter member of United Nations
1950 Turkey enters Korean War as a part of United Nations force; change from a single-party to a multi-party system
1952 Joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The attempt of the victorious Allies to control the Anatolian territory led to the Turkish War of Independence (1918-23).
Following the occupation of Istanbul in 1920 by the British, Italian and French, a Greek army advanced from Izmir deep into Anatolia.
While the sultan offered no resistance, under the leadership of Kemal Ataturk, the Turkish Nationalists overturned the postwar settlement embodied in the Treaty of Sévres (1920) and established the Republic of Turkey, formally recognized by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
Mustafa Kemal retired his military uniform and inspired the people to an even greater task: Transformation of the country into the democratic, secular Republic of Turkey.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
1881 Birth of Mustafa in Salonika
1893 Enters Military Secondary School where he is given the name of Kema
1899 Enters War College in Constantinople
1902 Graduates as lieutenant
1905 Posted to 5th Army in Damascus
1907 Posted to 3rd Army in Salonika
1908 "Young Turk" Revolution in Salonika
1911 Posted to General Staff in Constantinople; goes to Tobruk and Derna with Turkish Forces, promoted to Major
1912 Balkan War; severe defeat, returns home
1913 Appointed Military Attaché in Sofia
1914 Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel; Turkey signs secret alliance with Germany; Russia, Britain... [continues]
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