LATEST TRENDS IN COMPUTER HARDWARE
The history of computing hardware is the record of the ongoing effort to make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and capable of storing more data. 2.
Computing hardware evolved from machines that needed separate manual action to perform each arithmetic operation, to punched card machines, and then to stored program computers. The history of stored program computers relates first to computer architecture, that is, the organization of the units to perform input and output, to store data and to operate as an integrated mechanism. Secondly, this is a history of the electronic components and mechanical devices that comprise these units. Finally, we describe the continuing integration of 21st century supercomputers, networks, personal devices, and integrated computers/communicators into many aspects of today's society. Increases in speed and memory capacity, and decreases in cost and size in relation to compute power, are major features of the history .
The future of hardware is quite shaky because of the troubles between software and hardware computer engineers and now that software could not keep up with hardware, hardware may be declining as software will take precedence. One thing to consider is that hardware cannot be eliminated completely. The market will always demand for faster, lighter, more compatible, and overall better hardware. It can be stated that hardware may not enlist as many jobs as software does currently because of the need and advances in software technology compared to hardware technology. Hardware is and will continue to create new applications that will make life and businesses easier and more successful. BUS TECHNOLOGY
At one time, "bus" (Annex 1-a) meant an electrically parallel system, with electrical conductors similar or identical to the pins on the CPU. This is no longer the case, and modern systems are blurring the lines between buses and networks. 5.
Buses can be parallel buses, which carry data words in parallel on multiple wires, or serial buses, which carry data in bit-serial form. The addition of extra power and control connections, differential drivers, and data connections in each direction usually means that most serial buses have more conductors than the minimum of one used in the 1-Wire and UNI/O serial buses. As data rates increase, the problems of timing skew, power consumption, electromagnetic interference and crosstalk across parallel buses become more and more difficult to circumvent. One partial solution to this problem has been to double pump the bus. Often, a serial bus can actually be operated at higher overall data rates than a parallel bus, despite having fewer electrical connections, because a serial bus inherently has no timing skew or crosstalk. USB, FireWire, and Serial ATA are examples of this. Multidrop connections do not work well for fast serial buses, so most modern serial buses use daisy-chain or hub designs. 6.
Most computers have both internal and external buses. An internal bus connects all the internal components of a computer to the motherboard (and thus, the CPU and internal memory). These types of buses are also referred to as a local bus, because they are intended to connect to local devices, not to those in other machines or external to the computer. An external bus connects external peripherals to the motherboard. 7.
Network connections such as Ethernet are not generally regarded as buses, although the difference is largely conceptual rather than practical. The arrival of technologies such as InfiniBand and Hyper Transport is further blurring the boundaries between networks and buses. Even the lines between internal and external are sometimes fuzzy, I²C can be used as both an internal bus, or an external bus (where it is known as ACCESS. bus), and InfiniBand is intended to replace both internal buses like PCI as well as external ones like Fiber...
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