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Higher Modern Studies Notes

AFRICA
The IMF and World Bank
The World Bank is an international organisation that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e.g. schools, bridges, roads) with the goal to reduce poverty. The bank offers two types of basic loans:

Development loans – these are given for support of economic and social development Investment loans- provide quick finance to support countries government reform Grants may also be given under certain circumstance to help with: Debt relief

Sanitation/water supply
Support immunisation programmes
Combating hiv/aids
Initiative for improving the environment
If it’s the goal is to end poverty, has it failed?
Critics argue that banks have not done enough and they give grants to governments that they favour. The bank would argue the process has been made in many countries because of money for projects and schemes which increased standard of living. The IMF is a global institution that overseas financial system around the world: They watch exchange rates and try to control them.

Zimbabwe Case Study:
Since 2000,Zimbabwe has been unable to feed itself as Mugabe introduced a programme called land distribution which resulted in most wheat farmers being driven off their land, crippling commercial farming which also resulted in a vast area of land being un used. One piece of evidence to show Mugabe is a dictator is that it is stated in a book that he rigged election results to allow him to be sure that he will be re-elected. Social Factors that affect the Development in Africa:

4 main social factors:
Health
Land/Women
Education
Farming

Health:
HIV/Aids can impact on a country financially as aids will cut the market output of maize on a scale farm by 61%. Aids can also slash the wealth of some African countries by 20% The group that tends to be the most affected by aids are between the ages of 15-49, which are the prime working lives. Malaria, also known as “African Killer” as economically amongst some African countries they lose a total of $12 billion per year. Also in Africa on million people die of malaria, 95% of malaria cases are found in Africa. This means many people are unable to work. Land Ownership and Woman:

Those who have land ownership and its resources have economic power as they are able to provide a source of food, cash crops, water, fuel and shelter. Women are excluded from land ownership as in countries where school attendance which is quite low, this results in exclusion of schooling, training and learning about agriculture and information on land. Marital conflict or divorce heightens the prospects of land when women return to their villages that they have developed during their marriage because land ownership is owned by the man of the household. Education:

more males are enrolled in school rather than females as only 41% of males in Burkina Faso enrol on school whereas only 29% of females do Without education they will be inexperienced.
Responses to Developing issues in Africa:

Multilateral Aid - A multilateral organisation is an international organisation whose membership is made up of member governments, who collectively govern the organisation and are its primary source of funds. The OECD estimates that in 2008 around 40% of ODA or nearly US$50 billion from DAC countries was channeled through multilateral institutions and funds. There are a number of reasons why donor countries give aid through multilateral institutions: multilateral aid is generally seen as a less political form of aid than bilateral aid, encouraging international cooperation rather than strategic and commercial interests of respective donor countries; multilateral aid pools resources enabling the implementation of large-scale programs that are beyond the capacity of individual donor countries through bilateral aid; Multilateral...
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