Modern History Ww1 Notes

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 55
  • Published : May 31, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
* The Origins of WW1

* Imperialism
* “Nods and winks sustained peace in Europe” – Alan Wood * ‘Lets not fall out over something, lets swap pieces of land’ Trading land was used to keep peace * Alliances and Diplomacy

* ‘In short the defensive orientation of the alliance restrained state from acts of clear aggression – Alan Wood * International Economy
* ‘International trade strengthened peace in Europe’ –Alan Wood * Germany and Great Britain – 1910’s - ‘interdependent’ * The Role of the Military (militarism)
* ‘To live in peace is to prepare for war’ – Alan wood * Public opinion
* ‘There is little evidence of bellicose attitudes prior to 1914’ – Alan Wood (bellicose means pro war) * ‘The evidence is unequivocal: Europeans were turning their back on militarism – Ferguson “the pity of War” * ‘THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL’: socialists/Marxists (idea that backs communism) organisations * “Bonds of peace (5 factors) provided the basis for economic prosperity, cultural exchange and imperial expansion” – Alan Wood * “The great powers departed from their behaviour which has sustained peace because peace now seemed to threaten their great power status and even their existence” * Why Did War Break Out?

* Bonds of peace kept war from breaking out earlier * “If we are engaged in war we hall suffer, BUT little more than we shall if we stand aside” – Lord Grey, GB foreign minister 1914

“If we are engaged in war we hall suffer, BUT little more than we shall if we stand aside” – Lord Grey, GB foreign minister 1914

Escalation of fear – fear of encirclement, arms race and crises

* Reasons for Entering the War

* Crises:
* 1st Moroccan crisis 1907
* 2nd Moroccan crisis 1910/1911
* Balkan War 1911/1913
* Assassination of Arch Duke 1914 (sparked the
July crisis that would end in the declaration of war)
* Germany
1. Public opinion: “defensive war”
2. Kaiser Wilhelm (German general)
3. Threat of encirclement by France and Russia
4. Decline of ally (Aus/Hun)
5. Belief in British neutrality
6. Schleiffen-Moltke was plans (offensive and rely on passing through Belgium 7. Time is running out
* FRANCE
1. Revenge for lost land in 1871 Franco-Prussian
2. Role of Joffre: confident and draws up offensive war plans 3. Growing popularity for ‘defensive war’
4. Timing: war was close
5. Growing relationship with Russia
* GREAT BRITAIN
1. Navy rivalry (1912 GB won)
2. Moral reasons eg. Nationalism
3. Respect of France and obligation to Belgium
4. Threat of German advancement into Northern Europe
5. Political pressures
* AUS/HUN
1. Gradual decline politically, militarily
2. Rising ethical tensions/nationalism
3. Growing strengths of rivals (RUS,FRA)
4. Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand on the 28th June 1914 5. ‘Blank cheque’ Kaiser Wilhelm offers unconditional support * Russia
1. Commercial/trade interest in the Balkan
2. Slavic nationalism – assassination of Arch Duke F
3. Growth of German economic and military powers
4. Nicholas II
5. Pressure from France
6. Public opinion
7. Development of offensive

* Battles
‘Governments and high commanders were left to conduct operations as they saw fit. In the opening 5 months it was exceptional’ - Stevenson ‘Governments and high commanders were left to conduct operations as they saw fit. In the opening 5 months it was exceptional’ - Stevenson

Battle of Mons
* British Expeditionary forces obstruct German advance * 42 day conquest becomes unrealistic
* “While the Germans lost impetus the allies recovered” – Stevenson Battle Of Marne
* 100km of battles
* French resources and troops exhausted
* Moltke snatches defeat from...
tracking img