Modern History.Hsc.2012

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MODERN HISTORY
-2012

Topic one – USA 1919-1941
Topic two – conflict in the pacific
Topic three – Douglas MacArthur
Topic Four – World War I

TOPIC ONE – USA 1919-1941

USA 1920’S
* the radio age
* felt like istory had turned a corner and never going back * stock market
* black Thursday November 24 1929
* the jazz age
* a speakeasyyyyyyy

How significant were the Republican policies in causing the great depression? The significance of the republic policies were great, they brought a lot of growth in the 20’s allowing the market to strive over lots of trading and the purchase of shares, but was also an unstable market, as the government had no control over what it did and was left up to the private sector almost to run the market.

Entry of the United States world war 1

Non-Intervention
- The United States originally pursued a policy of non-intervention, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. - When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, "America is too proud to fight" and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. - Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as "piracy". - In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. The German Foreign minister, in the Zimmermann Telegram, told Mexico that U.S. entry was likely once unrestricted submarine warfare began, and invited Mexico to join the war as Germany's ally against the United States. - In return, the Germans would send Mexico money and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona that Mexico lost during the Mexican-American War 70 years earlier. - Wilson released the Zimmerman note to the public and Americans saw it as a cause for war. U.S. declaration of war on Germany

- After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917. First active U.S. participation

* The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power".

* The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act, it drafted 2.8 million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. * In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act.

* Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.

* The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys.

* Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S.

* Units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies.

* The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units.

* As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. The Harlem Helifighters fought as part of the French 16th Division, earning a unit Croix de guerre for their actions at Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood and Sechelt.

* AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British...
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