Modern Agriculture and Food Security

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Introduction:

India is primarily an agricultural[->0] country dating back to more than ten thousand years. Today, India ranks the second largest in agricultural output worldwide. Agriculture contributes approximately 33 percent of the Gross Domestic Product and round about 70 percent of Indian population is engaged in agriculture sector. Most of the agricultural outputs including wheat, tea, coffee, cotton etc are exported to foreign countries contributing about 8.56 percent of India?s exports. About 43 per cent of geographical land is used for agricultural activity. India accounts world?s number one country in sugarcane and stood second rank in rice output.

Modern Agricultural Techniques:

With years of practice in agriculture[->1], there have been new inventions and modern techniques adopted by farmers in agriculture[->2]. To spread and encourage knowledge of agriculture among the youth generation, government has even launched new programmes and courses with specialization in agriculture[->3]. Modern Agricultural comprises of improved farming techniques and the using of irrigation and high-yield grains resulting into increased production. The main drawback is being the inadequate monsoon, which accounts a crucial role in influencing agricultural production in India since most of the cropped area even now does not have any assured irrigation. Although measures are being undertaken by government authorities to eradicate the inadequacy of monsoon by introducing water dams and river project for effective irrigation.

In fact, India is facing the biggest challenge of producing enough food grains to cater the increasing population of India. Hence measures are been taken to expand farmland area and with quality grains the farmers are now able to produce double output in the same amount of land.

Farmers have adopted modern improved irrigation techniques that have the potential to increase agricultural production with improved farming techniques in areas that rely on monsoon also could improve yield. Moreover, improving the use of fertilizer, especially on rain fed land, also would help to increase the production. Government of India is trying a variety of plans and strategies with sophisticated water management techniques replacing the traditional farming practices. Short note on the Effects of Modern Agriculture

JAYAPRAKASH KAKADA
Historically, man as hunter-gatherer could not affect the environment because he was using the natural population of animals and plants well below the sustainable yields except in those areas where trading of animals and/or plants was introduced. Man's agricultural use of land is a relatively recent event. The evolution of systematic agriculture of today is 200 years old and dates back to the days of the Industrial Revolution. Agriculture has been considered as a way of life. Ever increasing population places greater demands on agriculture to increase the production, to match the increasing demands for food supply. With agricultural development though food production has successfully increased nearly everywhere but it has failed to match with the growing population in many areas - specially developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. This again has forced the pace of agricultural development to be maintained, so that teeming millions do not starve. Over the period of time, the development of agriculture was achieved in terms of: 1. Expansion and /or conversion of agricultural lands;

2. Increased agricultural productivity;
3. Multiple-cropping pattern;
4. Conversion of single-cropping system to two tier and / or three tier cultivation and 5. Expansion of natural limits.
In due course of time, agricultural development became possible due to (a) development of modern scientific techniques; (b) advanced technology; (c) expansion of irrigational facilities: (d) use of chemical fertilizers; (e) use of pesticides and insecticides; (f) development and use of high yielding...
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