We have discussed about the various learning theories in the last chapter. But as aspirant teachers, it is our experience that no teaching problems can be solved by acquiring knowledge of learning principles. The models of teaching will be a help to understand the nature of teaching.
Teaching models are developed keeping in view of the learning theories (So that the teaching theories may be indoctrinated and reaffirmed by using these models.). The teaching model gives a comprehensive and specific outline of teaching process. A teaching model essentially follows the six activities given below:- • determines the learning outcomes or instructional objectives • specifies the learning environment
• specifies the mechanism of learning process
• specifies the criterion of performance expected from students • analyse class room settings and design teaching strategies to achieve desirable outcomes • modify the tactics if the expected behavioural changes do not occur.
Thus we may define a model of teaching as “an instructional design that produce particular environmental situations (classroom setting) for students to instruct and learn in such a way that the expected change occurs in his behaviour.”
1) “A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculum, to design instructional materials and to guide instruction in the class room and other settings.” - Bruce Joyce & Marsha Weil 2) “ The model of teaching is a way to talk and think about instruction in which certain facts may be organised, classified and interpreted.” - Hyman
A close analysis of the above definition reveals the scope and functions of a model of teaching. Designing the Curriculum
Development of study materials Guiding the teacher • It helps in designing the curriculum or courses of study. • It helps in - developing and selecting proper instructional materials, text books, work books, multimedia programs and CAL programme ; utilising the teaching materials properly ; designing the appropriate educational activities • It guides the teacher in teaching - learning process by helping to achieve teacher –pupil interaction ; suggesting the ways to create favourable environment ;selecting appropriate teaching techniques, strategies or method Ultimately the teaching models are useful in bringing desirable changes and develop their social, personal and cognitive abilities.
Characteristics of Teaching Models
1) Models of teaching are plans or guidelines or patterns of teaching. 2) They follow a systematic scientific procedure to modify the behaviour of learners. 3) They specify the learning outcomes or instructional goals and the criteria of acceptable student performance. 4) They specify in definite terms the environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed. 5) All models of teaching specify mechanism or procedure that provide for students’ reaction and interaction with the environment. 6) Models of teaching are constructed on the basis of individual differences and according to various assumptions. 7) Models of teaching presents appropriate learning experiences suitable to learner’s needs, interests, curiosity and level of intelligence. 8) The teaching models bring about qualitative development of teacher’s competency as well as student’s personality.
A model of teaching enables the students to learn more easily and effectively. It will develop the required learning skills and habits in learners. Hence models of teaching are in fact models of learning. Because here the teacher help students to acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking and means of expressing themselves ; the teacher also teach them how to learn.
On the basis of this...