Ralph W. Tyler
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Ralph W. Tyler (1902–1994) was an American educator who worked in the field of assessment and evaluation. He served on or advised a number of bodies that set guidelines for the expenditure of federal funds and influenced the underlying policy of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Tyler chaired the committee that eventually developed the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).
Models of Curriculum Development
Ralph Tyler's Model/Rationale
Ralph Tyler considered four considerations in curriculum development: 1. purposes of the school
2. educational experiences related to the purposes
3. organization of the experiences
4. evaluation of the experiences
Tyler's Objective Model
Tyler's Objective Model for Curriculum Evaluation
Tyler came up with a book in 1949, Basic Theory of Basic principle of Curriculum & Instruction This model takes curriculum as a means of aiming toward an educational objective. Therefore, this model is also called means–objective model. Underlining questions that he asks:
1. What is the object of education?
2. What teaching experience that we have to provide in order to achieve educational object? 3. How to effectively organize the educational experience? 4. How can we know whether these objects have achieved? (How to evaluate?)
Which curriculum does the model evaluate: Planned, Enacted, and / or Experience? Planned
How is data collected? What data is collected? Is there an organizer? Educational experience is organized
Where does student assessment fit in?
Basic overview: Objective-Choice-Organization-Evaluation
This model aimed student's developing behavior as their target of teaching. The evaluation does not give much feedback on how to execute a better way of teaching.
What are the Pros and Cons to the Evaluation model?
* The objective under...