Communication as information teaser: Assumes that communication can be achieved without distortion. Flaws: interpretation and distortion are unavoidable. Nonverbal communication is ignored.
Communication as transactional process: Acknowledges that both senders and receivers are active and simultaneous interpreters of messages. Flaws: emphasizes on shared meaning. It does not emphasize political nature of many organizations.
Communication as Strategic Control: Assumes that communication is a tool that individuals use to control their environment. Flaws: it recognizes that people should not be expected to communicate in any objectively rational way thus ignoring the goals of clarity and honesty.
Communication as Dialogic Process: It mitigates against many of the problems associated with the other three models. Dialogic model better meet the needs of today’s workplace because it focuses on the contribution of the “receiver’s” perspective to an interpretation and course of action that are jointly formulated. It does not assume that meaning is shared but instead recognizes the interplay between difference and similarity of those involved in the communication process.
It does not assume that we are isolated individuals but instead that we live in groups and communities and that our actions affect others. It requires an understanding of the socially constructed nature of reality - individuals create meaning through communication and the possibility for a strategic approach to communication to go awry in an ethical sense.
Stereotyping can be a label for making sense out of what we perceive by categorizing or generalizing about it. It can be an oversimplified way of labeling people with the intention of denigrating them in some way.
Attribution: the assignment of meaning to other people’s behavior.
Impression Formation: process of integrating a variety of observations about a person...