Assignment # 2
Hassan Masood Faruqui
Models and Theorists in Organizational Development
Edgar Schein Modification of the Three Stage Process:
Edgar Schein modified the three stage process through specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. In stage 1, unfreezing is where disconfirmation creates hassle and discomfort, which causes guilt and anxiety and drives and motivates the person towards change. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviors and adopting new ones then change will not occur. This means the person must be psychologically safe in order to replace the old behaviors with the new ones. In stage 2, moving the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. This motivating evidence is gained by, e.g. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. In stage 3, refreezing is to integrate the new behaviors into the person’s personality, and attitudes. That is, stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual, and fit with the individual’s social surroundings.
Modification in Three Stage Process by Ronald Lippitt, Jeane Watson and Bruce Westley: These scholars further expanded the three stage process of Kurt Lewin into seven stage model which is illustrated model: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals; establishing goals and intentions of action. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Phases 3, 4, and 5 correspond to Lewin’s moving phase. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship, that is, terminating the client-consultant relationship.
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change:
This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (also known as “transactional change” and “transformational change”). In first-order change, some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional, evolutionary, adaptive, incremental, or continuous change. In second-order change, the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational, revolutionary, radical, or discontinuous change. OD programs are directed toward both first- and second-order change, with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. The changes in the 12 key dimensions, as identified by the Burke and Litwin model, bring about a series of changes in the structure, practices and the system of the organization. 12 Dimensions of the Burke-Litwin Change Model:
Here is a brief description of each of the 12 dimensions identified by the Burke-Litwin change model. 1.External environment: The key external factors that have an impact on the organization must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established. 2.Mission and Strategy: the vision, mission and the strategy of the organization, as defined by the top management should be examined in terms of the employees’ point-of-view about them. 3.Leadership: A study of the leadership structure of the organization should be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization. 4.Organizational Culture: An...