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Mobile phone
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"Cell Phone" redirects here. For the film, see Cell Phone (film). For the Handphone film, see Handphone (film).

The Qualcomm QCP-2700, a mid-1990s candybar style phone, and an iPhone 5, a current production smartphone. A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station. In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell[1][2][3] and Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 2.2 pounds (1 kg).[4] In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first to be commercially available. From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, penetrating about 87% of the global population and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.[5][6][7][8] In the first quarter of 2012, Nokia, which had been the global market leader in mobile phones since 1998, slipped into second place with 22.5% market share behind Samsung with 25.4% with Apple Inc. trailing in third place with 9.5%.[9] In 2012, for the first time since 2009 mobile phone sales to end users declined by 1.7 percent to 1.75 billion units.[10] Contents

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1 History
2 Features
o2.1 Text messaging
o2.2 SIM card
o2.3 Multi-card hybrid phones
o2.4 Kosher phones
3 Mobile phone operators
4 Manufacturers
5 Use of mobile phones
o5.1 In general
o5.2 For distributing content
o5.3 While driving
o5.4 In schools
o5.5 Mobile banking and payments
o5.6 Tracking and privacy
6 Health effects
7 Future evolution
8 Environmental impact
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links

History
Main article: History of mobile phones

An evolution of mobile phones
Inventor Charles E. Alden claimed, in the 29 April 1906 issue of the New York World, to have invented a device called the “vest pocket telephone" although Alden never had the chance to produce this device in large quantities.[11][12][13] The first mobile telephone calls were made from cars in 1946. Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service was made on 17 June in St. Louis, Missouri, followed by Illinois Bell Telephone Company's car radiotelephone service in Chicago on 2 October. [14] The MTA phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and weighed over 80 pounds (36 kg).[15][16] There were initially only 3 channels for all the users in the metropolitan area, increasing later to 32 channels across 3 bands. This service continued into the 1980s in large portions of North America. Due to the small number of radio frequencies available, the service quickly reached capacity. In 1956, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), was introduced in Sweden. John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.[17][18] Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, was the key researcher on Mitchell's team that developed the first hand-held mobile telephone for...
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