MLA Style

Topics: Literature, Cultural studies, Virginia Woolf Pages: 6 (841 words) Published: November 16, 2014
对论文中的直接引用或间接引用部分所依据的文献以夹注的形式标出。注意:正文中所采用的夹注要与参考文献严格一一对应。所有文中夹注必须能在Bibliography中找到与其对应的文献;同样,所有在Bibliography中所列举的都是文中夹注引用涉及的文献,不得罗列同正文没有直接关系的文献。夹注可以采用以下几种形式: 作者姓氏未在引文中出现
Medieval Europe was a place both of “raids, pillages, slavery, and extortion” and of “traveling merchants, monetary exchange, towns if not cities, and active markets in gain” (Townsend and Waugh 10-16). (注意:MLA格式不加年代,只加作者姓和页码,没有逗号)

Others hold the opposite point of view (e.g., Jakobson 9; Waugh 34)

Modern Literary studies have their origin in classic studies (Graff et al.19-35).

Modern Literary studies have their origin in classic studies (Clinchy, Graff , Goldberger, and Tarule 15-20). (作者有三个以上,则在第一位作者的姓氏后写上et al.以示其余姓氏的省略,或列上全部姓氏,夹注中的形式应与参考文献中的形式保持一致)

Graff defines his recent book, Professing Literature, as “a history of academic literary studies in the United States” (10).

In The Age of Voltaire, the Durants portray eighteenth century England as a minor force in the world of music and art (214-248).(注意:文内已出现作者名,括号里就只要加页码)

如在引文中提及整个文献及作者姓氏(不必夹注, 但参考文献中要注明相关出版信息) Slade’s revision of Form and Style incorporates changes made in the 1995 edition of the MLA Handbook.

集体作者如果组织名称太长,第一次提及时可采用全称后加注缩略 The annual report revealed substantial progress in fundraising (American Museum of Natural History 12, hereafter AMNH). 以后直接用缩略形式做夹注
The report surveys the major problems in fundraising (AMNH 15).

Between the years 1945 and 1972, the political party system in the United States underwent profound changes (Schlesinger, vol. 4).

Schlesinger pointed out the profound changes the political party system in the United States underwent between 1945 and 1972 (4: 98-104).

引用同一作者的两篇以上的文献, 可以分别以文献名的缩略形式注释 Shaughnessy points out that “the beginning writer does not know how writers behave” (Errors 79). (注意:书名缩略形式用斜体,文章名缩略形式用正体,实词首字母大写,与参考文献写法保持一致)

Teachers applauded Shaughnessy’s assertion that “teaching them [beginning writers] to write well is not only suitable but challenging work for those who would be teachers and scholars in a democracy” (Diving in 68). (注意:书名缩略形式用斜体,文章名缩略形式用正体,实词首字母大写,与参考文献写法保持一致)


Empirical studies on student learning carried out since the 70’s have found that students’ learning outcomes to a great extent depend on their choice of learning approaches (Biggs, Empirical Studies; Learning Strategies).(注意:这里不同的斜、正体表示作者的两篇不同作品,斜体者为书,正体者为文章。)

The major finding from the earlier studies (Barley; Clement et al.; Gardner and Lambert; Gliksman; Spolsky) was that learners with an integrative motivation tended to obtain better achievement that those with an instrumental motivation.(注意引用作品的排序)

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450)

But even in literary translation, linguistics is hardly a burden. Some famous Chinese scholars pointed out that “If one sees linguistics as a body of rules regulating language, translators most probably will yawn with boredom. If it signifies the use of words and locutions to fit an occasion, there is nothing to stop translators from embracing linguistics.” (Wang Zongyan and Shen Jiaxuan 38). (用汉语拼音表述)

如果引文较长,超过4行,拟另起一行,不加引号,左边缩进10个英文字母(即约4个英文字符), 夹注紧随引文末尾: At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (186)


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