Mixed methods research (MMR), although in has been defined in several different ways (see Johnson at al); most explanations are consistent in that it is essentially characterised by the employment of both qualitative and quantitative elements in a single study. (Johnson, et al., 2007, pp. 118-121; Niglas, 2000, pp. 9-10; Creswell & Plano Clark, 2010, p. 2;
The concept of mixed methods developed from the idea of methodological triangulation. First, quantitative researchers, Campbell and Fiske suggested using multiple measures to validate their findings (1959) (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2010, p. 21). The idea was further developed ( e.g.Webb, Campbell,Schwartz, and Sechrest (1966) and the term triangulation came about to refer to the operation ofmultiple methods in a single study with the intention of reaching the same conclusion (Johnson, et al., 2007, p. 114). (Jick, 1979).
The differentiation of within method triangulation, thus using different research methods within one paradigm, from between-methods triangulation, so mixing paradigms, is credited to Denzin (1978) (Bryman, 2004) who also defined four types of triangulation. Deriving/Growing therefore from a validation technique, triangulation later incorporated the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as data sources, analysts, and theories.
Reasons for combining quantitative and qualitative research were discussed by researchers (e.g. Sieber 1973, Rossman and Wilson 1985, Sechrest and Sidana cited in (Johnson, et al., 2007).Such reasons may involve the facilitation of the other method, triangulation, initiation, expansion
MMR is a growing field and as such it infers the development of several frameworks since its start. Classifications emerged based on the integration of approaches. One such framework is of Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) who differentiated between mixed method studies and mixed model studies, the former including...