mitosis

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Assignments 3. Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic, cell cycle, cell division. Name: ____________________________________________________________________

1. Complete the following table with the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells

DNA location

In the nucleoid
In the nucleus
Membranous organelles

Absent

Golgi complex, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.

Other organelles

Plasmids
Cytoplasm
Granules
Ribosomes
Cytoskeletons
Plasma membrane
Cell Wall
Glycocalix
Endospores
Chloroplasts
Endoplasmic reticulum
Flagellum
Vacuole
Nucleus

Cell Wall composition
Chemically complex, the typical bacteria Wall includes peptidoglycan Chemically simple, contains cellulose and chitin

Size
0.2 – 2.0 µm in diameter
10 – 100 µm in diameter

Chromosomes

Single circular chromosome with lack of histones in most cases Multiple linear chromosomes with histones

DNA packaging

No nuclear membrane so DNA is “floating”
In the nuclear membrane

Genes structure

First its a promoter, then the RNA coding sequence and finally the terminator

Promoter
Transcription
Start codón
Codons
Donor site
Exon
Intron
Poly-A-site
Cell Division

Fission

Mitosis or meiosis

Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
Acquisition of new genetic material

2. Complete the next sentences with the correct words.
a. During _____________________________ DNA is synthetized using as template a preexisting DNA molecule. This happens in the__________________. b. During ______________________, RNA is synthesized from DNA in the ____________________, but the process by which it mRNA and proteins are synthesized from coding genes is known as _____________ ______________. c. During ____________________ proteins are synthesized from ___RNA, with the aid of ____ RNA and ____ RNA. This happens in the__________________.

3. Complete the following table with the main molecular events (as replication, transcription, translation, or DNA synthesis) and cellular events (as growth, division, DNA repair, etc.) of each cell cycle phase. Phase

Cellular events
Molecular Events
Checkpoints
G1

S

There isn’t any
G2

M

4. Mention the main features of the cyclins, the cdk’s (cyclin-dependent kinases) and explain how its association (cyclin-cdk) controls the cell cycle progression. They are a family of proteins that control the progression of cells trough the cell cycle by activating cyclin–dependent kinase enzymes. CDK´s have a modified ATP-binding site that can be regulated by cyclin binding. They are a main potential target for anti cancer medication.

CDK´s is an enzyme that charge negatives phosphate groups to other molecules in a process called phosphorylation. This is important because this process its like an order to the cell that it is ready for the next stage of the cell cycle.

5. Compare the main features of cell division.

Binary Fission
Mitosis
Meiosis
Duration
30-180 minutes
Approximately in 63 minutes

24 days in a male homo sapiens
Number of divisions

Phases

Pass
Me
Another
Tequila

Ploidy of the “daughter” cells

Number of “daughter” cells

Genetic Material of the “daughter” cells

6. Compare the main features of the mitotic and meiotic prophases.

Features
Mitosis
Meiosis
DNA

Centrosomes

Telomeres

Nuclear envelope

Homologous chromosomes

Sinaptonemic complex

Achromatic splindle

References

Bibliografía
Education, M. H. (Dirección). (2009). BInary Fisiion [Película].

Google. (23 de Julio de 2010). Principal differences of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Kansas, Estados Unidos. Shmoop. (7 de Febrero de 2010). Shmoop. Obtenido de...
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