Curriculum is a word where people link it to a syllabus. A syllabus is an outline of the subjects in a course of study or teaching, it is often set out by an exam board, or prepared by the teacher who supervises or controls the quality. A syllabus usually contains specific information about the course, such as where the classes are held, who to contact and an outline to what will be covered in the course. (Smith 2000) Curriculum is about the students, what do they need to learn, how will they need to learn, what conditions will affect the learning, how will they know what they have to learn and much more. There are four ways of approaching curriculum, theory and practice. REF 1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge/product
2. Curriculum as a process
3. Curriculum as Praxis
4. Curriculum as context.
Curriculum as a body of knowledge/product and process
A commonly described, maybe slight simplistic version of two polarised curriculum models are those referred to by many authors as the ‘product model’ and the ‘process model’. Neary (2003:39) describes these as one which emphasises ‘plans and intentions (The Product Model) and one which emphasises activities and effects’ (The Process Model) The product model can be traced to the work of the writings of Tyler (1949) who greatly influenced curriculum development in America (O’Neill 2010). ‘Models that developed out of Tyler’s work were Criticised for their over emphasis on learning objectives and were viewed as employing very technical, means-to-end reasoning. The higher education context in Europe, which has been strongly influenced by the 1999 Bologna Declaration (European Commission, 2009), uses a model not dissimilar to Tyler’s work’ (O’Neill, 2010, In Press). The product model, however, has been valuable in developing and communicating transparent outcomes to the student population and has moved emphasis away from lists of content. Recent literature in this area suggests that in using...
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