Tutorial letter 301/4/2013
Religious Studies & Arabic
This tutorial letter contains important information about your module.
PLEASE STUDY THIS TUTORIAL LETTER CAREFULLY AND USE IT WHEN WRITING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS.
YOU WILL BE PENALISED FOR PLAGIARISM AND FOR NOT USING AN ACCEPTABLE SYSTEM OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE.
WE WOULD PREFER YOU TO USE THE HARVARD METHOD (AS EXPLAINED IN THIS TUTORIAL LETTER).
SRALLEN/301 Dear Student TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 3. 3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.2 3.3 3.4 1 Introduction How to reference A sample essay Shamanism and mysticism Explanation of references Example of List of References cited Plagiarism What is Plagiarism Defining plagiarism Types of plagiarism Why should you be concerned about plagiarism? The consequences of plagiarism Paraphrasing Examples of plagiarism
In this tutorial letter you are given some valuable pointers regarding the formal preparation and presentation of an essay-type assignment. Since this essay is a scientific, academic piece of work, it means that it must be written systematically, logically and clearly, using a system of references to indicate the sources that you have used. If you are already using some other reference system, we do not wish to force you to adopt the Harvard method, but we want to recommend it very strongly. If you do not use this method, you must consistently use another acceptable reference system. Information on the Harvard method can be accessed by searching for “Harvard system” on the Internet. The second part of the tutorial letter concerns the issue of plagiarism, and you are urged to read it carefully so that you can avoid all the many forms of plagiarism. 2 2.1 HOW TO REFERENCE A sample essay
Instead of merely giving you a set of rules and regulations, we decided to write a short sample essay in which the method is used. On the nest two pages you will find the essay on the left hand page, and on the right hand page, the rules explaining the reference system. The essay is rather artificial because it was "contrived" for the express purpose of illustrating the reference method. The content does not flow logically, but we hope that it will help you nevertheless to understand the reference method more fully. We suggest that you study this tutorial letter carefully and keep it in a safe place so that you can consult it throughout the semester when writing assignments. If you have any uncertainties about the contents of this tutorial letter, please do not hesitate to contact us. In this way you will enable us not only to explain it to you, but also to see any weaknesses which this letter may have and how to improve it for future use.
Shamanism and mysticism
The word "shaman" comes to us from the Tungusian "saman" of Russia or northern Siberia where it has been suggested that the word refers to a Buddhist monk or more specifically to "one who is excited, moved or raised" (Czaplicka 1914: 198). Czaplicka (1914: 318) dismisses the idea that shamanism is a disease such as arctic hysteria.
It is generally accepted that shamans use their imagination to gain powers of healing and freedom. Because the shaman shuts down "ordinary reality", he is able to utilise an energy from within and subsequently to find more splendour in an outer world (Carmody & Carmody 1985: 5). A shaman is called to his/her profession in a religiously-related manner, through dreams and visions.
Often a person thus chosen is understood to be suffering from an incurable disease of a psychosomatic nature. An agreement to accept the role of shaman brings recovery from the illness (Dioszegi 1968a: 244). Sometimes in dreams the shaman experiences himself being cut into pieces. It is in this way that shamans receive knowledge. Suffering is, therefore, an important part of the initiatory period in a shaman's life. (Dioszegi 1968b: 65).