Behaviorism, Social learning theory, Albert Bandura

Psychology is a discipline that applies scientific analysis in order to comprehend, predict and control cognition processes and human behaviour. Psychology endeavours to explain why humans behave the way they do and what leads to their behaviour, it then attempts to predict and modify behaviour. Psychology is defined by Merriam Webster as “a Science as the knowledge of the discipline is acquired by the means of scientific methods” (www.merriam-webster.com, 05.03.2012). Rather than speculating or relying on fictitious accounts concerning the phenomena, Psychologist use scientific methods to procure empirical evidence via sensory experience in order to encompass scientific foundations. The use of scientific methods avails to fulfil a main aim of Psychology, which is to determine a distinction between pseudoscience and scientific reality. In order to separate pseudoscience from scientific reality a series of procedures need to be applied to the phenomena. The outset of the procedure is to define and describe the variables of the phenomena by conducting empirical observations, in order to formulate a hypothesis. A hypothesis is then formulated by evaluating the collected data, with the use of educated assumptions. Empirical observations will assist psychologists to investigate the origins of the phenomenon and advance an explanation as to why the phenomenon is present and also make predictions on future behaviours. Most importantly a hypothesis must be testable; if it is not testable it would be discarded as a theory, as it bears no scientific foundations. Upon testing the hypothesis psychologist would design a research method which will encompass creativity and flexibility that would make the investigation informative and comprehensive to avoid reactivity of the subject. There are numerous research methods which subsume of case studies, experiments, observational studies, questionnaires and interviews. With the collected data from the research methods...
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