Reduced damage to the environment. One bus emits far fewer fumes than twenty cars (especially if it uses LPG fuel). Train emissions of CO2 "per passenger/Km are, on average, approximately half that of travel by car"1.
Reduced use of fuel. "In 1999 UK road transport consumed 80 times as much energy as rail, while the distance travelled by road passengers and freight was only 15 times as much"1.
Buses and trains are safer than cars2. You are 9 times more likely to die travelling by car than by rail1.
Reduced time spent on maintenance of personal vehicles.
No need to find parking spaces at your destination.
“Buses and trains can help overcome congestion, reduce carbon emissions, offer far higher fuel efficiency per passenger mile than the average car journey and provide socially inclusive forms of transport. The green credentials of public transport have been firmly established.”
Some people hold that public transport acts to "provide a social service for the poor [but rail] passengers are in fact overwhelmingly middle-class"4. This is probably due to the massive benefits of making daily commutes in pooled transport, therefore meaning many businessmen and workers use it.
“Britain's railways have prospered over the past 10 years. Passenger numbers have risen by 40%, and trains now carry more people than they have in 50 years.”
The Economist (2005)4
Passenger travel aside, there are also benefits for increasing the rail network in general. Traintracks use up less space than roads, are more easily concealable so cause less visual disruption, and with...