Project Stat. Math 5389 Graph Analysis# 1Spring , 2012Noemi Bores|

Identifying Misleading Graphs

Graphs are pictorial representations of numbers. Therefore, at the least, we should expect that the representation of the numbers be proportional to the numbers themselves. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. In some cases this occurs because the graph designer wants to give the impression of better performance than is actually the case. In other cases, the designer might not have any numerical sense.

Figure 1. Source: Erickson Times
Figure 1, which appeared in Erickson Times, shows the number of Olympic medals won by country. For Germany, the picture of two medals corresponds to almost 500 medals. Therefore, we would expect the picture of four medals to correspond to almost 1000 medals and the picture of six medals to correspond to almost 1500 medals. However, the label for the four-medal picture is 615 and for the 6 medal picture is 1975. Although there is the correct rank ordering, there is little relationship between the pictures of the medals and the labels of the number of medals.

Misleading Graphs and Statistics
It is a well known fact that statistics can be misleading. They are often used to prove a point, and can easily be twisted in favour of that point! The purpose of this section is to learn how to recognize common statisitcal deception so that to avoid being mislead.

Bad Sampling
When you use a sample to represent a larger group, you must make sure that the people in the sample are fairly representative of the larger group. Example 31.1
Decide whether a mall is a good place to find a sample for a survey about the amount of allowance received by people ages 10 to 15.
Solution.
The mall is probably not a representative place to find a fair sample of people in this age range. Taking a sample at the mall might not represent fairly those people who receive a small allowance, or none

...V. Adamchik
1
Graph Theory
Victor Adamchik Fall of 2005
Plan
1. Basic Vocabulary 2. Regular graph 3. Connectivity 4. Representing Graphs
Introduction
A.Aho and J.Ulman acknowledge that “Fundamentally, computer science is a science of abstraction.” Computer scientists must create abstractions of real-world problems that can be represented and manipulated in a computer. Sometimes the process of abstraction is simple. For example, we use a logic to...

...had its roots in the work of two mathematicians, Paul Erdos and Alfred Renyi. Their work suggested that systems such as communications could be effectively modelled by connecting nodes with randomly placed links. Their simple approach revitalised graph theory and led to the emergence of the field of random networks.
An important prediction of random network theory is regardless of the random placement of links most nodes will still have approximately the same number of...

...LAB # 1
Graph Matching
Principles of Physics I Laboratory
Breanna Wilhite
Introduction
In this lab motion will be represented by graphs that plots distance and velocity vs. time. A motion detector will be used to measure the time it takes for a high frequency sound pulse to travel from the detector to an object and back. By using this method sound can determine the distance to the object, or its position. This device will determine in what direction the...

... |
1. Name three different kinds of graphs that are often used to plot information and discuss the value of each.
Answer:
Three types of graphs are line graph, histogram or bar graph, and pie chart graph.
The line graph is used to describe how an object moves explaining relationship between time and distance traveled.
A histogram or bar graph is used to compare quantities...

...Graphs and Function
What is the relation between the graphs and function and how was it applied in the real world?
Graphs are frequently used in national magazines and newspaper to present information about things such as the world’s busiest airports (O’Hare in China is first, Heathrow in London is sixth), about the advertising-dollar receivers in the United States (newspaper are first, radio is fourth) and about NCAA men’s golf team title...

...Baker Machine Company
Layout
Problem 3.4. (Summary)
Baker Machine is considering two alternative layouts. We will compare the Weighted-Distance Scores using rectilinear distance* of the two block plans to determine which alternative layout is better.
Alternative Layout 1 Alternative Layout 2
3 | 6 | 4 |
5 | 1 | 2 |
3 | 1 | 4 |
5 | 6 | 2 |
* rectilinear distance – the distance between two points with a series 90-degree turns, as along city blocks
Data
Baker Machine...

...Graph Theory
GraphsGraph:- A graph consists of a nonempty set of points or vertices, and a set of edges that link together the vertices. A simple real world example of a graph would be your house and the corner store. Where the house and the store are the vertices and the road between them is the edge connecting the two vertices.
Or a graph is a network consisting of vertices (or nodes) and edges...