Misleading Graphs
Team C
Introduction to Statistics—QNT/273
February 7, 2011
Jeffrey McDonough
Misleading Graphs
“Graphs give a visual representation that enables readers to analyze and interpret data more easily than they could simply by looking at numbers. However, inappropriately drawn graphs can misrepresent the data and lead the reader to false conclusions” (Bluman, 2009, p.76). Some methods used by graph makers to mislead consumers are truncated axis starting points and using two dimensional pictures rather than simple bars or lines. Problems
The graph we chose as our project is flawed in many ways. The chart has no title, no scale on the vertical axis, and no labels for the horizontal axis. There is no way to determine what type of data is being represented other than “singles” of some kind being sold. Whether these are single units of something, single rooms rented, Kraft singles cheese slices, or something else entirely is uncertain. The missing labels on the horizontal axis also deprive the viewer from knowing exactly how the data is being tracked. The columns certainly look like they represent years but it could be something else entirely. Another large issue with this graph is that the two dimensional viewpoint makes it seem as if the 1995 column is far taller than the rest of the data when in fact it is the same height as the 1997 column. Effect on Users
When the graph is misleading, it becomes hard for the reader to accurately understand what the graph is trying to show. The largest problem with this graph is the lack of information provided about what is being studied. There is no title provided to give the reader a general idea of what information is being shown. The graph fails to show the frequency amount of the “number of singles being sold”, or even what the single is exactly. The fact that there is little labeling on the vertical axis and none on the horizontal axis can be misleading and could cause the users to think that the...
...V. Adamchik
1
Graph Theory
Victor Adamchik Fall of 2005
Plan
1. Basic Vocabulary 2. Regular graph 3. Connectivity 4. Representing Graphs
Introduction
A.Aho and J.Ulman acknowledge that “Fundamentally, computer science is a science of abstraction.” Computer scientists must create abstractions of realworld problems that can be represented and manipulated in a computer. Sometimes the process of abstraction is simple. For example, we use a logic to design a computer circuits. Another example  scheduling final exams. For successful scheduling we have to take into account associations between courses, students and rooms. Such set of connections between items is modeled by graphs. Let me reiterate, in our model the set of items (courses, students and rooms) won't be much helpful. We also have to have a set of connections between pairs of items, because we need to study the relationships between connections. The basic idea of graphs were introduced in 18th century by the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. He used graphs to solve the famous Königsberg bridge problem. Here is a picture (taken from the internet)
V. Adamchik
21127: Concepts of Mathematics
German city of Königsberg (now it is Russian Kaliningrad) was situated on the river Pregel. It had a park situated on the banks of the river and two islands. Mainland and islands were joined by seven bridges. A problem was whether it...
...Paul Erdos and Alfred Renyi. Their work suggested that systems such as communications could be effectively modelled by connecting nodes with randomly placed links. Their simple approach revitalised graph theory and led to the emergence of the field of random networks.
An important prediction of random network theory is regardless of the random placement of links most nodes will still have approximately the same number of links. In fact, in a random network the nodes follow a Poisson distribution with a bell shape (see Fig.1). Random networks are also called exponential, because the probability that a node is connected to k other sites decreases exponentially for large k. This is better described by the famous small world networks. It was Watts and Strogatz in 1998 that recognised that a class of random graphs could be categorised as small world networks. They noted that graphs could be classified according to their clustering coefficient and their diameter. Many random graphs show a small diameter and also have a small clustering coefficient. What Strogatz and Watts found was that in real world networks the diameter is still small but has a clustering coefficient significantly higher than expected by random chance. Watts and Strogatz thus proposed a simple model of random graphs with (a) a small diameter and (b) a large clustering coefficient.
I wasn't until 1998 when AlbertLászlǒ Barabási...
...LAB # 1
Graph Matching
Principles of Physics I Laboratory
Breanna Wilhite
Introduction
In this lab motion will be represented by graphs that plots distance and velocity vs. time. A motion detector will be used to measure the time it takes for a high frequency sound pulse to travel from the detector to an object and back. By using this method sound can determine the distance to the object, or its position. This device will determine in what direction the woman in the video was walking and how fast she was walking. This information will be plotted on a graph and show the motion as the woman moves, whether she speed up or slowed down. Logger Pro will use the change in position to calculate the object’s velocity and acceleration. All of this information is in graph form. A qualitative analysis of the graphs of motion will help you develop an understanding of the concepts of kinematics.
Theory
The motion of an object can be measured using a motion detector. The detector helps in knowing where an object is according to an indication point. How fast and in what direction an object is moving, and how an object is accelerating is necessary in understanding the kinematics graphs.
The Motion detector uses pulses of ultrasound that bounces off of an object to determine the position of the person/object. As the person moves, the change in its position is measured many times each second....
...Graphs
Data Structures and Algorithms
Prepared by: Engr. Martinez
Graph Concepts
Graph Concepts
Graphs are of 2 types
Undirected Graph
Undirected Graph examples
Directed Graph
Directed Graph example
Directed Graph
Directed GraphGraph Relationships
Graph RelationshipsGraph Relationships
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Degree of vertex
The number of edges incident onto the vertex For an undirected graph The degree of a vertex u is the number of edges connected to u. For a directed graph The outdegree of a vertex u is the number edges leaving u, and its indegree is the number of edges ending at u
Degree of vertex
Edges are of 2 types
Directed edge: A directed edge between the vertices vi and vj is an ordered pair. It is denoted by . Undirected edge: An undirected edge between the vertices vi and vj is an unordered pair. It is denoted by (vi,vj).
Different Types of Graphs
Subgraph Connected graph Completely connected graph
1. Subgraphs
A subgraph of a graph G = (V,E) is a...
...Graphs and Function
What is the relation between the graphs and function and how was it applied in the real world?
Graphs are frequently used in national magazines and newspaper to present information about things such as the world’s busiest airports (O’Hare in China is first, Heathrow in London is sixth), about the advertisingdollar receivers in the United States (newspaper are first, radio is fourth) and about NCAA men’s golf team title winner (Yael is first, Houston is second). The function concept is very closely connected to graphs, and functions are the heart of mathematics.
I gathered my information from books especially algebra books and some are from the internet. I went to the library to look for some books and I borrowed some so I have many resources of information.
Many reallife relations between two quantities expressed in the form of equation are functions. To visualize these relationships, geometric figures called graphs are used. Modern technology provides us with graphing utilities needed to draw these graphs as well as enhance man’s knowledge of graphing techniques. Scientist and astronomers identify, visualize, and explore graphical patterns useful in analyzing data about the universe. Economist and businessmen draw mathematical models to find curves of best fit. Generally, the use of function and graphs is found in every...
...
 
1. Name three different kinds of graphs that are often used to plot information and discuss the value of each.
Answer:
Three types of graphs are line graph, histogram or bar graph, and pie chart graph.
The line graph is used to describe how an object moves explaining relationship between time and distance traveled.
A histogram or bar graph is used to compare quantities using a series of vertical bars.
A pie chart graph represents data in a chart that resembles a pie cut into pieces. This is valuable when comparison to the whole is important.
Each type of graph presents information in a visual manner, which often makes interpretation more interesting.
(7 points)
Score 
 
2. Explain what chart junk is and how it differs from the kind of items you should include in your graphs. Provide four examples.
Answer:
Chart junk consists of decorative and distracting elements added to a graph that do not supply useful information on the graph such as texture or designs in the bars of a bar graph.
These may include strange highlighting or coloration, unusual formatting, cartoon drawings or pictures placed into the graph purely for visual effects such as gradation of color inside the...
...Baker Machine Company
Layout
Problem 3.4. (Summary)
Baker Machine is considering two alternative layouts. We will compare the WeightedDistance Scores using rectilinear distance* of the two block plans to determine which alternative layout is better.
Alternative Layout 1 Alternative Layout 2
3  6  4 
5  1  2 
3  1  4 
5  6  2 
* rectilinear distance – the distance between two points with a series 90degree turns, as along city blocks
Data
Baker Machine Company is a job shop that specialized in precision parts for firms in the aerospace industry. The current block plan is as follows:
3  4  2 
1  5  6 
The weighteddistance score for the current layout is 115.
 Closeness Matrix       
       
  Trips Between Departments  
 Department  1  2  3  4  5  6 
1  Burr and grind    7  16   10  5 
2  Numerically controlled (NC) equipment      4   
3  Shipping and receiving       9  9 
4  Lathes and drills        3 
5  Tool crib        3 
6  Inspection        
Solution
To determine which alternative layout is better we calculate the weighted distance, wd, scores of the two block plans.
Layouts can be assessed using the Layout solver of OM Explorer.
Solution (continue)
Alternative Layout 1
Solver  Layout 
       

   
...
...Graph Theory
GraphsGraph: A graph consists of a nonempty set of points or vertices, and a set of edges that link together the vertices. A simple real world example of a graph would be your house and the corner store. Where the house and the store are the vertices and the road between them is the edge connecting the two vertices.
Or a graph is a network consisting of vertices (or nodes) and edges (V,E)
Simple Graph
A graph can take on many forms: directed or undirected.
Directed Graph: A directed graph is one in which the direction of any given edge is defined.
Or A graph with directed edges = directed graph (digraph)
Directed edges = arcs
Directed Graph
Undirected Graph: An undirected graph is one in which the direction of any given edge is not defined. Conversely, in an undirected graph you can move in both directions between vertices. Or a graph with undirected edges is called undirected graph.
Undirected graph
Mixed Graph: A graph is one in which contains both directed...