Seema Sirpal Delhi University Computer Centre
Information is Critical
The information we have is not what we want, The information we want is not the information we need, The information we need is not available.
Information is a Resource
It is scarce It has a cost It has alternative uses There is an opportunity cost factor involved if one does not process information
Why need Information?
To ensure effective and efficient decision - making leading to prosperity of the Organisation.
What is MIS?
Short for Management Information System –
refers broadly to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools for organizing, evaluating and efficiently running their departments.
What is MIS?
Right Information To the right person At the right place At the right time In the right form At the right cost
Management Information System
The three sub-components Management, Information and System - together bring out the focus clearly & effectively. System emphasizing a fair degree of integration and a holistic view;
Information stressing on processed data in the context in
which it is used by end users;
Management focusing on the ultimate use of such information
systems for managerial decision making.
The Concept of MIS
Processing Logic Computers Data Data Data Human Beings Database Information Judgement / Intution Skill / Experience External Environment
Intelligence Design Choice
Monitoring / Feedback
Decision Implementation Performance
Why MIS? It’s Role
Increased Business & Management Complexities
Increased Business Complexities
Technological Revolution Research & Development Explosion of Information
Increased Management Complexities
Management Science Technologies Decision-making Onset of Computers
Functional Uses of MIS
Enhance : Quality of our operations Quality of our services We achieve : Efficiency Transparency Speedy Decision making
Strategic Uses of MIS
Precise development of strategies, planning, forecasting and monitoring Problem solving Decision-making Separate work from location
The concept of MIS has changed substantially over the years. In the 50’s and 60’s, the management saw the potential of computers to process large amounts of data speedily and accurately. The departments that were involved with such activities were known as Electronic Data Processing (EDP) departments. The focus of EDP was Record Keeping e.g. accounting data – Payroll data.
In the 70’s, there was a discernible shift from data to information. The focus was not on data but on the analysis of Organisation data. There was a shift in the philosophy. Such a concept came to be widely known as ‘Management Information System’.
right information in right time to right people
In the 70’s the top management relied on the staff of EDP & MIS to supply the necessary information. The 80’s saw the Personal Computer (PC) revolution. The Personal Computer & the desk-top metaphor changed the picture completely. The biggest pay-off for such direct use was the “what-if” analysis capability. This led to the emerge of Decision Support Systems (DSS).
The information and decision hungry managers of 80’s saw a huge potential in the expert systems as a result of spectacular growth in the Artificial Intelligence area.
Combined with DSS philosophy the expert systems could supply a superior class of managerial information support, known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBS).
The EDP targeted the operational level of management.
The MIS/DSS/KBS target the middle management.
Attempts were made to provide information to top management as well, known as Executive Information System (EIS).
Executive Support System
Knowledge / Expert System